Nilai Jaringan Sosial dan Model Kelestarian Perniagaan Perusahaan Kecil dan Sederhana (PKS) Melayu

  • Mohd Hadri Mohd Rifin Centre for Research in Development, Social and Environment, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Novel Lyndon Centre for Research in Development, Social and Environment, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Azlina Abdullah Centre for Research in Development, Social and Environment, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
Keywords: usahawan Melayu, jaringan sosial, perusahaan kecil dan sederhana, model kelestarian perniagaan

Abstract

Hubungan jaringan sosial merupakan satu strategi perniagaan yang tersulamnya proses sosial melalui hubungan interaksi dalam aktiviti perniagaan. Justeru, isu utama kajian ini ialah sejauh mana hubungan jaringan sosial menghasilkan nilai jaringan yang membantu kelangsungan hidup dan daya saing perusahaan kecil dan sederhana milik orang Melayu. Kajian ini bertujuan mengenal pasti nilai jaringan sosial dalam membantu kelangsungan hidup dan daya saing perusahaan kecil dan sederhana milik orang Melayu melalui aktiviti pertukaran nilai jaringan bersama aktor jaringan sosial yang membentuk sebuah model kelestarian perniagaan. Kajian ini dijalankan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif melibatkan temu bual mendalam dengan 20 orang informan yang merupakan usahawan kecil dan sederhana Melayu yang menjalankan perniagaan di Kuala Terengganu. Pemilihan informan kajian menggunakan kaedah pensampelan bertujuan. Ciri-ciri utama pemilihan informan ialah usahawan kecil dan sederhana yang mempunyai jumlah jualan tahunan melebihi RM300 ribu atau sekurang-kurangnya memiliki lima orang pekerja. Penganalisisan data kualitatif adalah secara bertema menggunakan perisian ATLAS.ti. Hasil kajian mendapati hubungan jaringan sosial menghasilkan nilai material dan nilai bukan material kepada usahawan Melayu. Aktiviti pertukaran nilai antara aktor jaringan sosial melibatkan perkongsian maklumat, tunjuk ajar, bantuan, perkhidmatan sokongan perniagaan, nasihat dan menyelesaikan masalah perniagaan. Impak dari pertukaran nilai jaringan sosial menghasilkan pelbagai manfaat kepada usahawan bermula dari proses penghasilan produk dan perkhidmatan yang berkualiti, strategi pemasaran, menepati kehendak pelanggan, kelangsungan perniagaan dan mampu bersaing dalam pasaran yang semakin mencabar. Kesimpulannya, membina hubungan bersama aktor jaringan sosial merupakan strategi perniagaan dan merupakan alat bagi usahawan Melayu untuk memiliki manfaat dalam perniagaan melalui peranan setiap aktor jaringan yang pelbagai, menghasilkan nilai jaringan yang berbeza, saling melengkapi dan saling diperlukan dalam membina sebuah perniagaan lestari yang bermatlamatkan nilai ekonomi, sosial dan persekitaran. Implikasi kajian menunjukkan bahawa usahawan Melayu perlu membina hubungan jaringan sosial di peringkat mikro dan makro termasuk institusi sosial.

Statistics
Abstract views: 58 , PDF downloads: 18

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agbim, K.C. (2019). Social Networking and the Family Business Performance: A Conceptual Consideration. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 15(1): 83–122.

Allee, V. (2008). Value Network Analysis and value conversion of tangible and intangible assets. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 9(1): 5–24.

Allee, V. (2009). Value-creating networks: Organizational issues and challenges. The Learning Organization, 16(6): 427–442.

Bansal, S., Garg, I. & Sharma, G.D. (2019). Social entrepreneurship as a path for social change and driver of sustainable development: A systematic review and research agenda. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(1091): 1–28.

Boons, F. & Lüdeke-Freund, F. (2013). Business models for sustainable innovation: State-of-the-art and steps towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 45: 9–19.

Chesbrough, H. & Rosenbloom, R.S. (2002). The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: evidence from Xerox Corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3): 529–555.

Clarkson, M.E. (1995). A Stakeholder Framework for Analyzing and Evaluating Corporate Social Performance. Academy of Management Review, 20(1): 92–117.

Doganova, L. & Eyquem-Renault, M. (2009). What do business models do?. Innovation devices in technology entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 38(10): 1559–1570.

Evans, S., Vladimirova, D., Holgado, M., Fossen, K. Van, Yang, M., Silva, E.A. & Barlow, C.Y. (2017). Business Model Innovation for Sustainability: Towards a Unified Perspective for Creation of Sustainable Business Models. Business Strategy and The Environment, 26(5): 597–608.

Freeman, R.E. (2010). Managing for stakeholders: Trade-offs or value creation. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(1): 7–9.

Geissdoerfer, M., Pieroni, M.P.P., Pigosso, D.C.A. & Soufani, K. (2020). Circular business models: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 277(123741): 1–17.

Geissdoerfer, M., Vladimirova, D. & Evans, S. (2018). Sustainable business model innovation: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 198: 401–416.

Granovetter, M.S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. The American Journal of Sociology, 78(6): 1360–1380.

Greco, A. & Jong, G. De. (2017). Sustainable Entrepreneurship : Definitions, Themes and Research Gaps. Campus Fryslân, 6(17): 1–36.

Gummerus, J. (2013). Value creation processes and value outcomes in marketing theory: Strangers or siblings? Marketing Theory, 13(1): 19–46.

Holm, D.B., Eriksson, K. & Johanson, J. (1999). Creating value through mutual commitment to business network relationships. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 467–486.

Jack, S.L. (2005). The role, use and activation of strong and weak network ties: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 42(6): 1233–1250.

Klyver, K., Honig, B. & Steffens, P. (2018). Social support timing and persistence in nascent entrepreneurship: exploring when instrumental and emotional support is most effective. Small Business Economics, 51(3): 709–734.

Lepak, D.P., Smith, K.G. & Taylor, M.S. (2007). Value creation and value capture: A multilevel perspective. Academy of Management Review, 32(1): 180–194.

Lüdeke-Freund, F. & Dembek, K. (2017). Sustainable business model research and practice: Emerging field or passing fancy? Journal of Cleaner Production, 168: 1668–1678.

Lux, S., Lamont, B.T., Ellis, K.M., Ferris, G.R. & Muchira, J. (2016). Developing and Utilizing Efficient Ties in Entrepreneurial Networks in Africa. Africa Journal of Management, 2(1): 73–92.

Nosratabadi, S., Mosavi, A., Shamshirband, S., Zavadskas, E.K., Rakotonirainy, A. & Chau, K. (2019). Sustainable Business Models : A Review. Sustainability, 11(1663): 1–30.

Den Ouden, E. (2012). Innovation Design: Creating Value for People, Organizations and Society. Springer: London.

Schaltegger, S., Hansen, E.G. & Lüdeke-freund, F. (2016). Business Models for Sustainability : Origins , Present Research , and Future Avenues. Organization and Environment, 29(1): 3–10.

Syllick, T. & Hockerts, K. (2002). Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Business Strategy and The Environment, 11: 130–141.

Teece, D.J. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning. 43(2): 172–194.

Tsai, W. & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4): 464–476.

Walter, A., Ritter, T. & Gemünden, H.G. (2001). Value Creation in Buyer–Seller Relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 30(4): 365–377.

Zott, C. & Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: An activity system perspective. Long Range Planning, 43(2): 216–226.

Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L. (2011). The business model: Recent developments and future research. Journal of Management, 37(4): 1019–1042.
Published
2021-09-10
How to Cite
Mohd Rifin, M. H., Lyndon, N. and Abdullah, A. (2021) “Nilai Jaringan Sosial dan Model Kelestarian Perniagaan Perusahaan Kecil dan Sederhana (PKS) Melayu”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(9), pp. 96 - 116. doi: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i9.1053.
Section
Articles