The Impact of CO2 Emissions on the GDP per Capita, Employment Rate and Energy Consumption of China, Korea and Japan

  • Allieah A. Mendoza College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines
  • Kirby Duane Garret T. Reyes College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines
  • Pauline Antonette D. Soriano College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines
  • Ronaldo Cabauatan University of Santo Tomas
Keywords: CO2 emission, GDP per capita, Employment Rate, Energy Consumption, Environmental Kuznets curve


This paper aims to investigate the relationship between CO2 Emissions and GDP per capita of three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and South Korea). The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis and its possible implications to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol Agreement will be tested. The independent variables Employment and Energy consumption will be used as control variables. Multiple regression analysis and cointegration tests will be used on time series data of Japan, Korea, and China that is obtained from the World Bank database. GDP per capita is measured in constant 2010 US$, CO2 emission in kt, Employment in the ratio of total employment to total population aged 15 and above, and Energy Consumption in annual kWh per capita.

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How to Cite
Mendoza, A., Garret T. Reyes, K. D., D. Soriano, P. A. and Cabauatan, R. (2021) “The Impact of CO2 Emissions on the GDP per Capita, Employment Rate and Energy Consumption of China, Korea and Japan”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(11), pp. 315 - 333. doi: