Dari Federalisme Terpusat ke Federalisme Multi-etnik: Pengaruh Etnisiti dalam Persekutuan Malaysia

  • Abdul Aqmar Ahmad Tajudin Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
  • Muhamad Nadzri Mohamed Noor Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
  • Hussain Yusri Zawawi Fakulti Undang-Undang dan Hubungan Antarabangsa, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Malaysia
Keywords: etnisiti, federalisme, kestabilan politik, Malaysia, nasionalisme etnik

Abstract

Kesusasteraan lepas cenderung melihat federalisme Malaysia dibentuk oleh faktor sejarah dan penjajahan. Oleh kerana itulah mereka selalu membahagikan perbincangan mereka di dalam federalisme Malaysia kepada tiga tahap perkembangan iaitu kolonialisme, dekolonialisme dan pasca-kolonialisme. Berbeza dari kajian terdahulu, artikel ini cuba melihat dan meneroka pengaruh etnisiti dalam pencorakan perkembangan federalisme Malaysia. Semasa proses dekolonisasi, etnisiti menjadi antara angkubah utama yang dipertimbang oleh Suruhanjaya Reid dalam menggubal perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaya 1957 yang agak terpusat bagi mengekalkan identiti Melayu, Islam dan kedudukan Raja-raja Melayu. Semasa pembentukan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963 pula, etnisiti turut mempengaruhi rekayasa struktur persekutuan yang asimetrikal. Tujuannya adalah bagi memastikan identiti dan autonomi etnik di Sabah dan Sarawak terpelihara kerana tanpa jaminan ini, Sabah dan Sarawak sukar untuk bersetuju untuk membentuk Persekutuan Malaysia. Selepas rusuhan kaum pada tahun 1969 sehingga politik kontemporari kini, pengaruh etnisiti telah mencorakkan Malaysia sebagai federalisme multi-etnik. Ini dapat dilihat dengan wujudnya kebangkitan nasionalisme etnik majoriti, perdebatan mengenai asimilasi dan integrasi etnik, tuntutan perlembagaan yang lebih simetri antara pusat-negeri, persaingan etnik antara Melayu dan bukan Melayu di Semenanjung, antara Muslim Bumiputera dan bukan Muslim Bumiputera di Sabah dan Sarawak dan pertentangan antara kumpulan agama konservatif dalam progresif. Justeru, pengaruh etnisiti yang kuat ini berupaya menjejaskan matlamat serampang dua mata federalisme multi-etnik di Malaysia, iaitu mengiktiraf kepelbagaian (diversity) dan mewujudkan perpaduan (unity) kerana ia terus mengekalkan sifat tegang tetapi stabil dalam kalangan masyarakatnya. Pun begitu, artikel ini melihat struktur federalismenya yang bersifat terpusat, asimetri dan multi-etnik inilah yang menyumbang kepada kestabilan sosio-politik dan integriti persekutuan Malaysia.

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Published
2021-11-10
How to Cite
Ahmad Tajudin, A. A., Mohamed Noor, M. N. and Zawawi, H. Y. (2021) “Dari Federalisme Terpusat ke Federalisme Multi-etnik: Pengaruh Etnisiti dalam Persekutuan Malaysia”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(11), pp. 26 - 37. doi: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i11.1139.
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Articles