Empowering Development in the 21st Century: Energy – Growth – Environment Nexus in the Asia Pacific Region

  • Samantha Alyssa J. Acuin College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4889-3595
  • Mikaela Nicole S. Cabral College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4567-6365
  • Ronaldo R. Cabauatan College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; Research Center for Social Sciences and Education, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2203-8643
Keywords: Sustainable economy, dynamic nexus, economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission


This paper explores the dynamic nexus of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption, economic growth, urbanization, and FDI and its impact on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for thirteen (13) selected countries in the Asia Pacific region from 1960-2019 using panel OLS, cointegration, panel EGLS, cross-dependence tests, and pairwise granger causality tests. Empirical results proved the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and corroborate the subsistence of the Energy-Environmental Kuznets Curve (E-EKC) for thirteen (13) selected countries in the Asia Pacific region. Results from the pairwise granger causality test supported the conservation and neutrality hypothesis among the selected countries wherein the former showed a unidirectional causal relationship running from real GDP per capita to non-renewable energy consumption (GDP→NEC). Finally, this study provided possible recommendations to policymakers in developing effective carbon emission reduction and energy efficiency strategies for a sustainable economy to foster.


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Author Biography

Ronaldo R. Cabauatan, College of Commerce of Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; Research Center for Social Sciences and Education, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines.

Ronaldo Cabauatan is currently connected with the College of Commerce and Business Administration of the University of Santo Tomas.  He finished his MA in Economics in UST in 2005 and BS in Economics in PUP in 2001. He also completed his Ph.D. Economics in the UST Graduate School. He has been connected with the Research Center for Social Sciences and Education.

Dr. Cabauatan served as an Industry Roadmap consultant for the Department of Trade and Industry – Board of Investment from April 2012 to December 2012. He also taught in Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila as an Instructor from 2004 to 2006. He also served as Japanese consul staff in the Embassy of Japan from April 2005 to May 2005.

His previous researches were concentrated on the following:

  • Effects of Population, Inflation, and Unemployment on Education
  • Textile and Garment Industry in the Philippines
  • Effects of Financial Globalization in the Philippines: An Empirical Analysis
  • Price and Money Supply in the Philippines: A Causality Analysis
  • The Philippine Steel Industry: Its Performance, Determinants, Contribution to the Economy and Prospect
  • The Extent of Macro-Economic Indicator Affecting the Philippine National Budget
  • Agricultural Production per Male Agricultural Worker
  • Financial Analysis on Smart Communication, Inc. and Subsidiaries

His specializations are Financial Economics; Econometrics (SPSS, Eviews); Public Sector Economics; International Economics; Monetary Economics; Mathematical Economics; and International Financial Institutions.


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How to Cite
Acuin, S. A., Cabral, M. N. and Cabauatan, R. (2022) “Empowering Development in the 21st Century: Energy – Growth – Environment Nexus in the Asia Pacific Region”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 7(2), p. e001290. doi: 10.47405/mjssh.v7i2.1290.