Effective Communication and Organization Culture in Enhancing Employee’s Work Performance During Work from Home (WFH)

  • Nuratiqah Mohamad Darus Faculty of Communication and Media Studes, UiTM, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia.
  • Suhaimee Saahar @ Saabar Faculty of Communication and Media Studes, UiTM, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia.
Keywords: Work from home, Effective communication, Organizational culture


The rapid spread of the covid-19 virus has had an impact on the lives and jobs of communities around the world. The existence of new norms has forced the world community to accept and adapt to living with this virus. In Malaysia, work from home is one of the new norms practiced in every sector to curb the spread of covid-19 pandemics. In Government Link Company (GLC), work from home style working is applied to almost all departments and to high risk individuals. The purpose of this research is to explore the effective communication and organizational culture practices required during work from home when there are changes to employee’s behavior and psychological that affects their work performance. Therefore, the use of effective communication is needed to ensure less constraint in conveying information between employees and employers. This research was conducted by using qualitative method. Data was collected through conducting in-depth interviews with different positions level of employees between ages of 25-40. The semi-structured interview questions were designed to elicit the response towards answering the research questions. The findings suggested that during working from home method, behavior and psychological change affected the style of manage between personal matter and work, at the same time there is interference from the environment. Findings also suggested that the appropriate management style is important to create a good organizational culture and foster mutual trust between employers and employees that help them improve working performance at the same time.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullahi, M., Raman, K., & Solarin, S. (2021). Effect of Organizational Culture on Employee Performance: A Mediating Role of Employee Engagement in Malaysia Educational Sector. International Journal of Supply and Operations Management, 8(3), 232–246. https://doi.org/10.22034/IJSOM.2021.3.1

Adu-Oppong, A. A., & Agyin-Birikorang, E. (2014). Communication in the workplace: Guidelines for Improving Effectiveness. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304782482_COMMUNICATION_IN_THE_WORKPLACE_GUIDELINES_FOR_IMPROVING_EFFECTIVENESS

Ansell, C., Sorensen, E., & Torfing, J. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic as a game changer for public administration and leadership? The need for robust governance responses to turbulent problems. Public Management Review, 23(7), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2020.1820272

Arbour, S., Kwantes, C. T., Kraft, J., & Boglarsky, C. (2014). Person-Organization Fit: Using Normative Behaviors to Predict Workplace Satisfaction, Stress and Intentions to Stay. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict; Arden, 18(1). https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Person-Organization-Fit%3A-Using-Normative-Behaviors-Arbour-Kwantes/bad22afe572aa05e105c68d4f3c9cff9e561db98

Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R. N., & Sinha, J. B. P. (1999). Organizational Culture and Human Resource Management Practices. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(4), 501–526. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030004006

Bajpai, R., & Abdullah, M. I. (2019, July 14). Perkhidmatan awam tonggak kemakmuran bersama. Berita Harian. https://www.bharian.com.my/rencana/muka10/2019/07/584654/perkhidmatan-awam-tonggak-kemakmuran-bersama

Bucata, G., & Rizescu, A. M. (2017). The Role of Communication in Enhancing Work Effectiveness of an Organization. Land Forces Academy Review, 22(1), 49–57. Sciendo. https://doi.org/10.1515/raft-2017-0008

Cacciattolo, K. (2014). Understanding Organisational Cultures. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 10(10). https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/4782

Chartered Management Institute. (2015). Understanding Organisational Culture. https://www.managers.org.uk/~/media/Files/PDF/Checklists/CHK-232-Understanding-organisational-culture.pdf

Coombs, W. T. (2020). Public Sector Crises: Realizations from Covid-19 for Crisis Communication. The Open Journal of Sociopolitical Studies, 13(2), 990–1001. https://doi.org/10.1285/i20356609v13i2p990

Dickler, J. (2021, March 11). For better or worse, working from home is here to stay. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/11/one-year-into-covid-working-from-home-is-here-to-stay.html

El-Zeiny, R. M. A. (2012). The Interior Design of Workplace and its Impact on Employees’ Performance: A Case Study of the Private Sector Corporations in Egypt. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 746–756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.02.145

Essop, N. (2022). Understanding COVID-19’s impact on the civil government sector | Deloitte Global. Deloitte South Africa. https://www2.deloitte.com/za/en/pages/about-deloitte/articles/understanding-covid-19-s-impact-on-the-civil-government-sector-.html

Evanoff, B. A., Strickland, J. R., Dale, A. M., Hayibor, L., Page, E., Duncan, J. G., Kannampallil, T., & Gray, D. L. (2020). Work-Related and Personal Factors Associated With Mental Well-Being During the COVID-19 Response: Survey of Health Care and Other Workers. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8), e21366. https://doi.org/10.2196/21366

Femi, A. F. (2014). The Impact of Communication on Workers’ Performance in Selected Organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(8), 75–82. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-19827582

Folorunso, O. O., Adewale, A. J., & Abodunde, S. M. (2014). Exploring the Effect of Organizational Commitment Dimensions on Employees Performance: An Empirical Evidence from Academic Staff of Oyo State Owned Tertiary Institutions, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(8), 275–286. https://econpapers.repec.org/article/hurijarbs/v_3a4_3ay_3a2014_3ai_3a8_3ap_3a275-286.htm

Fusch, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are We There Yet? Data Saturation in Qualitative Research. NSUWorks, 20(9). https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol20/iss9/3/

Gariety, B., & Shaffer, S. (2007). Monthly Labor Review • Wages and Working at Home Wage differentials associated with working at home. https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/03/art5full.pdf

Gray, J., & Laidlaw, H. (2002). Part‐time employment and communication satisfaction in an Australian retail organisation. Employee Relations, 24(2), 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450210420929

Green, R. (2020, October 14). Best Ways to Improve Your Company’s Culture. Www.businessnewsdaily.com. https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5935-improve-company-culture.html

Gregory, B. T., Harris, S. G., Armenakis, A. A., & Shook, C. L. (2009). Organizational culture and effectiveness: A study of values, attitudes, and organizational outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 62(7), 673–679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.05.021

Gursoy, D., Chi, C. G.-Q., & Karadag, E. (2013). Generational differences in work values and attitudes among frontline and service contact employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 40–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.04.002

Hatch, M. J., & Schultz, M. (1997). Relations between organizational culture, identity and image. European Journal of Marketing, 31(5), 356–365. https://doi.org/10.1108/0309056971016758

Hill, E. Jeffrey., Ferris, M., & Märtinson, V. (2003). Does it matter where you work? A comparison of how three work venues (traditional office, virtual office, and home office) influence aspects of work and personal/family life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(2), 220–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0001-8791(03)00042-3

Hogan, S. J., & Coote, L. V. (2014). Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: A test of Schein’s model. Journal of Business Research, 67(8), 1609–1621. Sciencedirect. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.09.007

Homburg, C., & Pflesser, C. (2000). A Multiple-Layer Model of Market-Oriented Organizational Culture: Measurement Issues and Performance Outcomes. Journal of Marketing Research, 37(4), 449–462. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.37.4.449.18786

Kandlousi, N. S. A. E., Ali, A. J., & Abdollahi, A. (2010). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Concern of Communication Satisfaction: The Role of the Formal and Informal Communication. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(10). https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v5n10p51

Keyton, J. (2017). Communication in Organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4(1), 501–526. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032516-113341

Krishnan, D. B. (2021, April 2). Study: WFH may remain post-Covid-19 | New Straits Times. NST Online. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2021/04/678941/study-wfh-may-remain-post-covid-19

Laker, B. (2020, August 24). Working From Home Is Disliked By And Bad For Most Employees, Say Researchers. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/benjaminlaker/2020/08/24/working-from-home-is-disliked-by-and-bad-for-most-employees/?sh=7248a0b46734

Main, A., Zhou, Q., Ma, Y., Luecken, L. J., & Liu, X. (2011). Relations of SARS-related stressors and coping to Chinese college students’ psychological adjustment during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(3), 410–423. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023632

Majumdar, P., Biswas, A., & Sahu, S. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown: cause of sleep disruption, depression, somatic pain, and increased screen exposure of office workers and students of India. Chronobiology International, 37(8), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2020.1786107

Mann, S., & Holdsworth, L. (2003). The psychological impact of teleworking: stress, emotions and health. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18(3), 196–211. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-005x.00121

Markovic, M. R., & Salamzadeh, A. (2018). The Importance of Communication in Business Management. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Importance-of-Communication-in-Business-Markovi%C4%87-Salamzadeh/0742ddb095d5c2dc88b0106cc0b52d3178c053f5

Mazzucato, M., & Kattel, R. (2020). COVID-19 and public-sector capacity. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 36(1). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/graa031

Messenger, J., Oscar, V. L., Gschwind, L., Simon, S., Vermeylen, G., & Wilkens, M. (2017). Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work. In Eurofound. Publications Office of the European Union. https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2017/working-anytime-anywhere-the-effects-on-the-world-of-work

Mintzberg, H., & McHugh, A. (1985). Strategy Formation in an Adhocracy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30(2), 160–197. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393104

Mohammed, J. H. (2010). Importance of Public Sector. India Study Channel. https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/125089-Importance-Public-Sector.aspx

Muhammad, F. A. T. (2020, September 6). Penjawat awam galas aspirasi besar kerajaan. Kosmo Digital. https://www.kosmo.com.my/2020/09/06/penjawat-awam-galas-aspirasi-besar-kerajaan/

Muliaty, M., Basri, M., & Jasruddin, J. (2017). Effects of Organizational Transformation and Culture on Employees Performance. Journal of Economic & Management Perspectives, 11(3), 1287-1292. http://ezproxy.sunway.edu.my/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/effects-organizational-transformation-culture-on/docview/2101265962/se-2?accountid=147680

Munjal, D. (2017). Effective business communication: Key to success. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(7), 698–702. https://www.allresearchjournal.com/archives/2017/vol3issue7/PartJ/3-7-123-970.pdf

OECD. (2020, September 7). Productivity Gains from Teleworking in the Post COVID-19 era: How Can Public Policies Make It happen? OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/productivity-gains-from-teleworking-in-the-post-covid-19-era-a5d52e99/

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N., & Hoagwood, K. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 533–544. NCBI. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-013-0528-y

Saad, N., & Kaur, P. (2020). Organizational Theory and Culture in Education. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.665

Sahni, J. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on Employee Behavior: Stress and Coping Mechanism During WFH (Work From Home) Among Service Industry Employees. International Journal of Operations Management, 1(1), 35–48. https://doi.org/10.18775//ijom.2757-0509.2020.11.4004

Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership, 3rd ed. Jossey-Bass.

Schein, E. H. (1983). The role of the founder in the creation of organizational culture. RePEc - Econpapers. https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/mitsloanp/2039.htm

Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109–119. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.45.2.109

Schuster, C., Weitzman, L., Sass Mikkelsen, K., Meyer‐Sahling, J., Bersch, K., Fukuyama, F., Paskov, P., Rogger, D., Mistree, D., & Kay, K. (2020). Responding to COVID‐19 through Surveys of Public Servants. Public Administration Review, 80(5), 792–796. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13246

Senapati, A. (2016, March 22). Importance of effective communication in organisation. Linkedin.com. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/importance-effective-communication-organisation-avinash-senapati

Shahzad, F., Iqbal, Z., & Gulzar, M. (2013). Impact of Organizational Culture on Employees Job Performance: An Empirical Study of Software Houses in Pakistan. ProQuest, 5(2), 56–64. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1503664074

Sulich, A., Sołoducho-Pelc, L., & Ferasso, M. (2021). Management Styles and Decision-Making: Pro-Ecological Strategy Approach. Sustainability, 13(4), 1604. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041604

Tavares, A. I. (2017). Telework and health effects review. International Journal of Healthcare, 3(2), 30. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijh.v3n2p30

Titang, F. F. (2013). The Impact of Internal Communication on Employee Performance in an Organization. SSRN Electronic Journal, 90. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2865675

Trompenaars, F., & Woolliams, P. (2002). A new framework for managing change across cultures. Journal of Change Management, 3(4), 361–375. https://doi.org/10.1080/714023847

Vyas, L., & Butakhieo, N. (2020). The Impact of Working from Home during COVID-19 on Work and Life Domains: an Exploratory Study on Hong Kong. Policy Design and Practice, 4(1), 1–18. Tandfonline. https://doi.org/10.1080/25741292.2020.1863560

Weber, G., & Martensen, M. (2021). Transforming organizational culture amidst a diverse workforce: A qualitative study in the service industry. Www.econstor.eu. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/231359

Winarso, W. (2018). Organizational communication; a conceptual framework. ResearchGate. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/G9UBC

Wits Language School. (2017, August 1). Effective Communication Means Business Success. Entrepreneur Asia Pacific.https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/330960#:~:text=Effective%20communication%20strengthens%20the%20connections

Yang, L.-R., Huang, C.-F., & Hsu, T.-J. (2014). Knowledge leadership to improve project and organizational performance. International Journal of Project Management, 32(1), 40–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2013.01.011

Yeh, S.-S. (2020). Tourism recovery strategy against COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism Recreation Research, 46(2), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2020.1805933

Zheng, W., Yang, B., & McLean, G. N. (2010). Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management. Journal of Business Research, 63(7), 763–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.06.005

How to Cite
Mohamad Darus, N. and Saahar @ Saabar, S. (2022) “Effective Communication and Organization Culture in Enhancing Employee’s Work Performance During Work from Home (WFH)”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 7(5), p. e001478. doi: 10.47405/mjssh.v7i5.1478.