Secondary ESL Teachers Use of Google Classroom during COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Mohd Haniff Mohd Tahir Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia.
  • Airil Haimi Mohd Adnan Akademi Pengajian Bahasa, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Mohamad Syafiq Ya Shak Akademi Pengajian Bahasa, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Perak 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.
  • Dianna Suzieanna Mohamad Shah Akademi Pengajian Bahasa, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Shushma Devi Piaralal Faculty of Education and Languages, Open University Malaysia (OUM), 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
Keywords: Google Classroom, secondary ESL teachers, COVID-19 pandemic


Education means of delivery has been transformed from in person to online learning because of COVID-19. This study assesses factors influencing the use of Google Classroom (GC) in four northern states located in Peninsula Malaysia for lessons during the COVID-19 pandemic among secondary ESL educators. A non-experimental design was employed. Primary data collected from a self-administered online questionnaire were analysed descriptively in a general survey of trends, involving 103 survey respondents (i.e., teachers). The findings of this study will allow Malaysian education stakeholders to understand the factors influencing the use of GC in schools to enable appropriate decisions about its use among teachers. It will also assist Malaysia's Ministry of Education in formulating policies relating to the use of GC and assist administrators of secondary schools in making decisions on the type of infrastructure and technical support needed. To evaluate the factors affecting GC used for instructions, a longitudinal study is recommended as such study will indicate whether longer periods of instructions result in better use of GC or not. This study extends significance in the field of instruction for teachers since it can be used to perform additional studies to increase the use of GC by teachers. To better evaluate the power of GC’s instructions or other learning management systems in advancing virtual instruction prowess, a potential global expansion of this study should be performed.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul Rabu, S. N. A., Hussin, H., & Bervell, B. (2018). QR code utilization in a large classroom: higher education students' initial perceptions. Education and Infyormation Technologies.

Adnan, A. H. M. & Zamari, Z. M. (2012). Computer-Aided Self-Access Language Learning: Views of Indonesian, Malaysian & New Zealand practitioners. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 67, 49-60. Available:

Adnan, A. H. M., Karim, R. A., Tahir, M. H. M., Mustafa Kamal, N. N., & Yusof, A. M. (2019). Education 4.0 technologies, Industry 4.0 skills and the teaching of English in Malaysian tertiary education. Arab World English Journal, 10(4), 330-343. Available:

Adnan, A. H. M., Ya Shak, M. S., Karim, R. A., Tahir, M. H. M., & Shah, D. S. M., (2020). 360-Degree Videos, VR Experience and the application of Education 4.0 technologies in Malaysia for exposure and immersion. Advances in Science Technology and Engineering Systems, 5(1), 373-381. Available:

Al-Maroof, R. A. S., & Al-Emran, M. (2018). Students Acceptance of GC: An Exploratory Study Using PLS-SEM Approach. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(6)

Al Qudah, A. A. (2014). Accepting Moodle by academic staff at the University of Jordan: Applying and extending TAM in technical support factors. European Scientific Journal, 10(18), 183-200.

Alghamdi, S. R. & Bayaga, A. (2016). Use and attitude towards Learning Management Systems (LMS) in Saudi Arabian universities. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(9), 2309-2330. Available: 10.12973/eurasia.2016.1281a

Alhardy, O. & Lally, V. (2017). Adoption of e-learning in Saudi Arabian university education: Three factors affecting educators. European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies, 2(2), 64-85, 2017.

Alim, N., Linda, W., Gunawan, F., & Saad, M. S. M. (2019). The effectiveness of GC as an Instructional media: A Case of State Islamic Institute of Kendari, Indonesia, Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 7(2), 240-246.

Alqahtania, A. (2019). Usability Testing of Google Cloud Applications: Students' Perspective. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 9(3), 326-339.

Amadin, F. I., Obienu, A. C., & Osaseri, R. O. (2018). Main barriers and possible enablers of Google apps for education adoption among university staff members. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 37(2).

Asamoah, M. K. (2018). Factors influencing lecturers’ adoption and use of an open source Learning Management System in universities in Ghana. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana.

Asiri, M. J. S., Mahmud, R., Bakar, K. A., & Ayub, A. F. M. (2012). Factors influencing the use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian higher education: A theoretical framework. Higher Education Studies, 2(2), 125-137.

Ballew, T. D. (2017). Teacher perceptions of a technology-based Google Classroom. Doctoral dissertation, Carson-Newman University.

Bondarenko, O., Mantulenko, S., & Pikilnyak, A. (2019). GC as a Tool of Support of Blended Learning for Geography Students. arXiv preprint arXiv:1902.00775.

Coskuncay, D. F. & Ozkan, S. (2013). A model for instructors' adoption of Learning Management Systems: Empirical validation in higher education context. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(2), 13-25, 2013.

Elkington, R. (2020). Using Google Classroom as a Learning Management System. In Technology Tools for Teaching in Higher Education: The Practical Handbook Series. Ecampus Ontario. Available:

Espinosa, N., Estira, K. L., & Ventayen, R. J. M. (2017). Usability Evaluation of GC: Basis for the Adaptation of GSuite E-Learning Platform. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts, and Science, 5(1).

Fathema, N., Shannon, D., & Ross, M. (2015). Expanding the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to examine faculty use of Learning Management Systems (LMSs) in higher education institutions. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 210-232.

Fralinger, B., & Owens, R. (2009). YouTube as a learning tool. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 6(8), 15-28.

Heggart, K. R., & Yoo, J. (2018). Getting the Most from GC: A pedagogical framework for tertiary educators. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 43(3), 9.

Iftakhar, S. (2016). Google Classroom: What works and how?. Journal of Education and Social Science, 3, 12-18.

Jakkaew, P., & Hemrungrote, S. (2017, March). The use of UTAUT2 model for understanding student perceptions using GC: A case study of introduction to Information technology course. In 2017 International Conference on Digital Arts, Media and Technology (ICDAMT) (pp. 205-209). IEEE.

Jordan, M. M., & Duckett, N. D. (2018). Universities Confront ‘Tech Disruption’: Perceptions of Student Engagement Online Using Two LMSs. The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology, 10(1), 4.

Karim, R. A., Adnan, A. H. M., Tahir, M. H. M., Adam, M. H. M., Idris, N., and Ismail, I., (2020). The application of mobile learning technologies at Malaysian universities through Mind Mapping. Advances in Science Technology and Engineering Systems, 5(3), 510-517, 2020. Available:

Krauskopf, K., Zahn, C., & Hesse, F.W. (2012). Leveraging the affordances of Youtube: The role of pedagogical knowledge and mental models of technology functions for lesson planning with technology. Computers & Education, 58(4), 1194-1206.

Kumar, J. A., & Bervell, B. (2019). GC for mobile learning in higher education: Modelling the initial perceptions of students. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2), 1793-1817.

Liu, H. C., & Chuang, H. H. (2016). Integrating Google Classroom to Teach Writing in Taiwan. Minnesota Summit on Learning & Technology.

Mohd Tahir, M. H. & Tunku Mohtar, T. M. (2016). The effectiveness of using vocabulary exercises to teach vocabulary to ESL/EFL learners. Pertanika Journal Social Science and Humanities, 24(4), 1651-1669

Muthmainnah, N. (2019). Problems Encountered by Students in Teaching Reading Using GC Application. Proceeding of The 2nd ICoLLiT (International Conference on Language, Literature and Teaching) 2019.

Olivier, J. (2016). Blended learning in a first-year language class: Evaluating the acceptance of an interactive learning environment. Literator, 37(2).

Sudarsana, I. K., Putra, I. B. M. A., Astawa, I. N. T., & Yogantara, I. W. L. (2019, March). The use of GC in the learning process. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1175(1), 012165).

Schaffhauser, D. (2020). Google Classroom is top education app download. [Online]. The Journal. Available:

Schmid, R.F., Bernard, R.M., Borokhovski, E., Tamim, R.M., Abrami, P.C., Surkes, M.A., et al. (2014). The effects of technology use in postsecondary education: A meta-analysis of classroom applications. Computers & Education, 72, 271-291.

Ventayen, R. J. M., Estira, K. L. A., De Guzman, M. J., Cabaluna, C. M., & Espinosa, N. N. (2018). Usability evaluation of GC: Basis for the adaptation of gsuite e-learning platform. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, 5(1), 47-51.

Zikmun, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business research methods (9th ed.). South Western, Cengage Learning.

How to Cite
Mohd Tahir, M. H., Mohd Adnan, A. H., Ya Shak, M. S., Mohamad Shah, D. S. and Devi Piaralal, S. (2022) “Secondary ESL Teachers Use of Google Classroom during COVID-19 Pandemic”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 7(5), p. e001502. doi: 10.47405/mjssh.v7i5.1502.