Reviews on the Job Interview Approaches in Malaysia Context

  • Isai Amutan Krishnan Perdana University, School of Liberal Arts and Science and Technology, Suite 5.3, 5th Floor Wisma Chase Perdana Jalan Semantan Damansara Heights 50490 Kuala Lumpur, 50490 Wilayah Persekutuan, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Muthukumaran Kanasan Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (TAR UC) No. 77, Lorong Lembah Permai 3, 11200 Tanjung Bungah, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
  • Nirmala Devi Tailan Perdana University, Suite 9.2, 9th Floor, Wisma Chase Perdana, Changkat Semantan, Damansara Heights, 50490 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Pauline Georgina Priya Hebert Sundram Akademi Pengajian Bahasa, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Pahang, Kampus Raub, 27600 Raub, Pahang, Malaysia.
  • Kiret Kaur 2428, Jalan SJ 2/2, Taman Seremban Jaya, 70450, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Keywords: Job interviews, Interview evaluation, Interview procedures, Interview approach


The job interview has become a popular topic for research among scholars and is a common format employed by any stake holders, recruitment agencies, companies and institutions. It is also called an assessment to select a suitable candidate for hiring. A common instrument used for the job interview is standard interview questions or semi-structured interview questions internally or locally with the set of common objective. There were several studies conducted by scholars on employment interviews. It was found that three common areas of interest are explored in this paper: (1) comprehending what standardised interviews envisage, (2) investigating how interview concepts can be evaluated, and (3) categorise the candidate and interview components that may impact the interview procedure. It was further found that there are also three equally important factors that require moderate research focus to be incorporated: (1) constructing a general standard and value for the interview format or standard interview questions for fresh graduates and behavioural interview questions for senior positions, (2) focus on the best attributes or personal traits, and (3) reliable explanations, classification and quantification of candidate characteristics and employability skills. It is hope that these approaches can be utilized and contributes in the field of job interviews, especially in Malaysia context which prepare the young generations.


Download data is not yet available.


Arthur, W., Jr., & Villado, A. J. (2008). The importance of distinguishing between constructs and methods when comparing predictors in personnel selection research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 435-442.

Becton, J. B., Field, H. S., Giles, W. F., & Jones-Farmer, A. (2008). Racial differences in promotion candidate performance and reactions to selection procedures: A field study in a diverse top-management context. Journal of Organisational Behavior, 29(1), 265-285

Blackman, M. C., & Funder, D. C. (2002). Effective interview practices for accurately assessing counterproductive traits. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 109-116.

Buckley, M. R., Jackson, K. A., Bolino, M. C., Veres, J. G., III, & Field, H. S. (2007). The influence of relational demography on panel interview ratings: A field experiment. Personnel Psychology, 60, 627-646.

Campion, M. A., Palmer, D. K., & Campion, J. E. (1997). A review of structure in the selection interview. Personnel Psychology, 50, 655-702.

Chapman, D. S., & Zweig, D. I. (2005). Developing a nomological network for interview structure: Antecedents and consequences of the structured selection interview. Personnel Psychology, 58, 673-702.

Cliffordson, C. (2002). Interviewer agreement in the judgement of empathy in selection interviews. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 198-205.

Day, A. L., & Carroll, S. A. (2003). Situational and patterned behavior description interviews: A comparison of their validity, correlates, and perceived fairness. Human Performance, 16, 25-47.

Dewan. (2018). Understanding ethonography: an ‘exotoc’ ethonographers’s perspective. In: Mura P., Khoo-LattimoreC.(eds) Asian Qualitative Research in Tourism. Perspective on Asian Tourism. Springer, Singapore.

Dipboye, R. L., Gaugler, B. B., Hayes, T. L., & Parker, D. (2001). The validity of unstructured panel interviews: More than meets the eye. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16, 35-49.

Dixon, M., Wang, S., Calvin, J., Dineen, B., & Tomlinson, E. (2002). The panel interview: A review of empirical research and guidelines for practice. Public Personnel Management, 31(2), 397-428.

Drake, J. D. (1997). The perfect interview: How to get the job you really want. New York: AMACOM.

Ellis, A. P. J., West, B. J., Ryan, A. M., & DeShon, R. P. (2002). The use of impression management tactics in structured interviews: A function of question type? Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 1200-1208.

Fiske, S., Cuddy, A. & Glick, P. (2006). Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth And competence, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (2), 77-83.

Frazer, R. A., & Wiersma, U. J. (2001). Prejudice versus discrimination in the employment interview: We may hire equally, but our memories harbour prejudices. Human Relations, 54(1), 173-191.

Gibb, J. L., & Taylor, P. J. (2003). Past experience versus situational employment: Interview questions in a New Zealand social service agency. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 41, 371-383.

Haaland, S., & Christiansen, N. D. (2002). Implications of trait-activation theory for evaluating the construct validity of assessment center ratings. Personnel Psychology, 55, 137-163.

Hausknecht, J. P., Day, D. V., & Thomas, S. C. (2004). Applicant reactions to selection procedures: An updated model and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 57, 639-683. Hebl, M.

Higgins, C. A., & Judge, T. A. (2004). The effect of applicant influence tactics on recruiter perceptions of fit and hiring recommendations: A field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 622-632.

Huffcutt, A. I. (2011). An empirical review of the employment interview construct literature. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19(1), 62-81.

Huffcutt, A. I., & Arthur, W., Jr. (1994). Hunter and Hunter (1984) revisited: Interview validity for entry-level jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 184-190.

Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Klehe, U. (2004). The impact of job complexity and study design on situational and behavior description interview validity. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12, 262-273.

Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 897-913.

Hunting, J. (2019). Job Interview: This book includes: guide to a winning interview, how to answer questions, preparation, questions and answers. (Kindle Edition). Dallas, Texas.

Husain, M.Y., Mokhar,A.A., Ahmad,R.M., Mustapha. (2010). Importance of employability skills from employers' perspective. Proceedings of International Conference on Learner Diversity 2010, Proceeding of 3rd International Conference of Social and Behavioural Sciences, 7(2) (2010), pp. 430-438

Imane, T. & Zohra, N.M.F. (2022). Interviewers Practices and Perceptions During the Job Interview for an EFL Assistant Lecturer Position. ELWAHAT Journal for Research and Studies, 15(1), 85-106.

Jussim, L., Coleman, L. M., & Learch, L. (1987). The nature of stereotypes: A comparison and integration of three theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 536-546.

Klehe, U., & Latham, G. (2006). What would you do-really or ideally? Constructs underlying the behavior description interview and the situational interview in predicting typical versus maximum performance. Human Performance, 19(1), 357-382.

Krajewski, H. T., Goffin, R. D., McCarthy, J. M., Rothstein, M. G., & Johnston, N. (2006). Comparing the validity of structured interviews for managerial-level employees: Should we look to the past or focus on the future? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 411-432.

Krishnan, I. A., & Maniam, M. (2021a). A Syntactical Analysis of Fresh Graduates’ Job Interview Responses. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(10), 761-779.

Krishnan, I. A., & Maniam, M. (2021b). An Analysis of Social-Interaction Strategies in Job Interviews amongst Fresh Graduates. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(10), 742-760.

Kristof-Brown, A., Barrick, M. R., & Franke, M. (2002). Applicant impression management: Dispositional influences and consequences for recruiter perceptions of fit and similarity. Journal of Management, 28(1), 27-46.

Kutcher, E. J., & Bragger, J. D. (2004). Selection interviews of overweight job applicants: Can structure reduce the bias? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 1993-2022.

Latham, G. P., & Budworth, M. (2006). The effect of training in verbal self-guidance on the self-efficacy and performance of Native North Americans in the selection interview. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(1), 516-523.

Levashina, J., & Campion, M. A. (2006). A model of faking likelihood in the employment interview. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14(1), 299-316.

Lievens, F., & De Paepe, A. (2004). An empirical investigation of interviewer-related factors that discourage the use of high structure interviews. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 29-46.

Lipovsky, C. (2006). Candidates' negotiation of their expertise in job interviews. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 1147-1174.

Matthew, J., D. & Nanette., D. (2007). Perfect phrases for negotiating salary and job offers.. McGraw Hill Education.

Maurer, S. D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55, 307-327.

Maurer, T. J., Solamon, J. M., & Lippstreu, M. (2008). How does coaching interviewees affect the validity of a structured interview? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 355-371.

McCarthy, J., & Goffin, R. (2004). Measuring job interview anxiety: Beyond weak knees and sweaty palms. Personnel Psychology, 57, 607-637.

McDaniel, M. A., Whetzel, D. L., Schmidt, F. L., & Maurer, S.D. (1994). The validity of employment interviews: A comprehensive review and meta analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 599-616.

McFarland, L. A., Ryan, A. M., Sacco, J. M., & Krista, S. D. (2004). Examination of structured interview ratings across time: The effects of applicant race, rater race, and panel composition. Journal of Management, 30(1), 435-452.

McKay, P. F., & Davis, J. (2008). Traditional selection methods as resistance to diversity in organizations. In K. Thomas (Ed.), Diversity resistance in organizations (pp. 151-174). New York: Taylor Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum.

Middendorf, C. H., & Macan, T. H. (2002). Note-taking in the employment interview: Effects on recall and judgments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 293-303

Morgeson, F. P., Reider, M. H., Campion, M. A., & Bull, R. A. (2008). Review of research on age discrimination in the employment interview. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(1), 223-232.

Murchison, H.M. (2017). Tell Me About Yourself: Six Steps for Accurate and Artful Self-Definition. Berrett-Koehler Publishers; (1st edition). Oakland USA. ISBN-13: 978-1523094660

Peeters, H., & Lievens, F. (2006). Verbal and nonverbal impression management tactics in behavior description and situational interviews. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14(1), 206-222.

Ployhart, R. E. (2006). Staffing in the 21st century: New challenges and strategic opportunities. Journal of Management, 32, 868-897.

Posthuma, R. A., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2002). Beyond employment interview validity: A comprehensive narrative review of recent research and trends over time. Personnel Psychology, 55, 1-81.

Powers, P. (2004). Winning Job Interviews. New Jersey: Career Press.

Purkiss, S. L., Segrest, Perrewe, P. L., Gillespie, T. L., Mayes, B. T., & Ferris, G. R. (2006). Implicit sources of bias in employment interview judgments and decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 101(2), 152-167.

Reilly, N. P., Bocketti, S. P., Maser, S. A., & Wennet, C. L. (2006). Benchmarks affect perceptions of prior disability in a structured interview. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(1), 489-500.

Roth, P. L., Van Iddekinge, C. H., Huffcutt, A. I., Eidson, C. E., Jr., & Schmit, M. J. (2005). Personality saturation in structured interviews. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13, 261273.

Saks, A. M., & McCarthy, J. M. (2006). Effects of discriminatory interview questions and gender on applicant reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(1), 175-191.

Salgado, J. F., & Moscoso, S. (2002). Comprehensive meta-analysis of the construct validity of the employment interview. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 299-324.

Sapaat, M. A., Mustapha, A., Ahmad, J., Chamili, K., & Muhamad, R. (2011). A data mining approach to construct graduates’ employability model in Malaysia. International Journal of New Computer Architectures and Their Applications (IJNCAA), 1(4), 1086-1098.

Scott, F.J & Willison, D. (2021). Students’ reflections on an employability skills provision, Journal of Further and Higher Education, 45(8), 1118-1133, DOI:10.1080/0309877X.2021.192802

Singh, A. K. J., & Raja Harun, R. N. S. (2020). Industrial trainees learning experiences of English related tasks at the workplace. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(1), 22-42.

Suarta, M. & Suwintana, I. K. (2020).The new framework of employability skills fordigital business, International Conference on Technology and Vocational Teachers (ICTVT) 2020, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1-9.doi:10.1088/17426596/1833/1/012034

Sussmann, M., & Robertson, D. U. (1986). The validity of validity: An analysis of validation study designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7(1), 461468.

Tanius, S. E., Johari, H., Yulia, A., Heng, C.S., & Hanim, K.P. (2019). The employability skills performance of business graduates in Malaysia: do employers, graduates and academicians speak the same language?. International Journal of Asian Social Science, Asian Economic and Social Society, 9 (1), 11-17.

Tharshini, N.K., Ibrahim, F., Kamaluddin, M.R., Rathakrishnan, B., Che Mohd Nasir, N. (2021). The link between individual personality traits and criminality: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health disabled, 18(16), 8663.

Tiaba, I., & Nadjai, F. Z. (2020). Exploring EFL Doctoral Students’ Perceptions of Employment Interviews for a Faculty Position. Traduction Et Langues, 19(01), 184-205.

Topor, D. J., Colarelli, S. M., & Han, K. (2007). Influences of traits and assessment methods on human resource practitioners' evaluations of job applicants. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21, 361-376.

Udin, M. (2021). Investigating employers’ and graduates’ perceptions about graduate employability skills in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Technopreneurship, 11(1), 25-40.

Van Iddekinge, C. H., Sager, C. E., Burnfield, J. L., & Heffner, T. S. (2006). The variability of criterion-related validity estimates among interviewers and interview panels. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14, 193-205.

Wiersma, U.L. (2016). The four stages of the job interview: Helping interviewers put two and two together. Evidence-based HRM, 4(3), 232-239.

Wilk, S. L., & Cappelli, P. (2003). Understanding the determinants of employer use of selection methods. Personnel Psychology, 56, 103-124.

Williams, J. (2004). Sell yourself: Master the job interview process. Arlington, TX: Principle Publications.

Woodzicka, J. A., & LaFrance, M. (2005). The effects of subtle sexual harassment on women's performance in a job interview. Sex Roles, 5(3), 67-77.

Yoong, D., Don, Z. M., & Foroutan, M. (2017). Prescribing roles in the employability of Malaysian graduates. Journal of Education and Work, 30 (4), 432-444

Zainuddin, S.Z, Pillai, S., Dumanig, F.P. & Phillip, A. (2019), “English language and graduate employability”, Education + Training, 6(1), 79-93.

Zakaria, N., Mohamed Zainal, S. R., & Mohd Nasurdin, A. (2011). Investigating the role of human resource management practices on the performance of SME: A conceptual framework. In Annual Summit on Business and Entrepreneurial Studies, Journal of Global Management, 3(1), 74-92.

How to Cite
Krishnan, I. A., Kanasan, M., Tailan, N. D., Sundram, P. G. P. H. and Kaur, K. (2022) “Reviews on the Job Interview Approaches in Malaysia Context”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 7(10), p. e001901. doi: 10.47405/mjssh.v7i10.1901.