A Study of the Causal Factors of Animal Crimes in Malaysia
This research paper investigates the numerous factors influencing the occurrence of animal crimes in Malaysia. Through a thorough examination of literature, the study aims to uncover the underlying causes behind the prevalent animal-related offenses in the country. The findings reveal that several key factors contribute to this issue, including a lack of awareness regarding animal welfare, inadequate enforcement of animal protection laws, and cultural attitudes that diminish the value of animals. To tackle this problem effectively, the study proposes a range of potential solutions. These include raising public awareness about animal welfare, enhancing the enforcement of existing animal protection laws, and fostering a cultural shift that recognizes and respects the intrinsic worth of animals. One crucial aspect of this study is its revelation that animal crimes are not haphazard acts, but rather, they are deeply rooted in social and cultural influences. By pinpointing these contributing factors and offering practical remedies, this research holds significant importance as it can guide policy-making and direct actions to mitigate animal crimes in Malaysia effectively.
Ahmad, A., Syaidatul Bt. Mohd. Adzmi, P., Nur Ikhwan Bin Amernudin, A., & Fazini Asro Bt. Ramzi Sulaiman, N. (2021). Enhancing Legal Protection of Stray Animals Welfare Through Society Intervention And Enforcement in Malaysia. Studies of Applied Economics, 39(10). https://doi.org/10.25115/eea.v39i10.6016
Animal Welfare Act, (2015).
Baker, L. W. (Ed.). (2015). Animal rights and welfare: A documentary and reference guide. ABC-CLIO, LLC.
Beirne, P., & South, N. (2013). Issues in Green Criminology. Taylor and Francis.
Beirne, P., & South, N. (2016). Green Criminology (First edition). Routledge.
Bernama. (2019, August 12). Cops looking for individual who killed dog with arrows. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2019/08/512368/cops-looking-individual-who-killed-dog-arrows
Bernama. (2022, October 21). Property manager charged with flinging cat to death from 15th floor. The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2022/10/21/property-manager-charged-with-flinging-cat-to-death-from-15th-floor
Bernama. (2023a, March 25). Cat carcasses horror: Neighbours describe suspect as an animal lover. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2023/03/892846/cat-carcasses-horror-neighbours-describe-suspect-animal-lover
Bernama. (2023b, March 28). Salesman jailed two years, fined RM50,000 for starving cats to death. The Star. https://www.nst.com.my/news/crime-courts/2022/12/859026/labourer-fined-rm23000-cruelty-dog
Burchfield, K. B. (2016). The Sociology of Animal Crime: An Examination of Incidents and Arrests in Chicago. Deviant Behavior, 37(4), Article 4. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2015.1026769
Burchfield, K. B. (2018). The Nature of Animal Crime: Scope and Severity in Chicago. Crime & Delinquency, 64(14), 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128717719515
Gullone, E. (2014). Risk Factors for the Development of Animal Cruelty. Journal of Animal Ethics, 4(2), 61–79. https://doi.org/10.5406/janimalethics.4.2.0061
Jayabalan, S., Randawar, D. K., Othman, R., Sivameenambigai, & Abdul Rani, M. H. (2021). Recognition of Animals as Sentient Beings in Malaysia: A Dire Necessity. UiTM International Conference on Law & Society 2021, Shah Alam, Malaysia.
Mellor, D., Yeow, J., Mamat, N. H. bt, & Hapidzal, N. F. bt M. (2008). The Relationship between Childhood Cruelty to Animals and Psychological Adjustment: A Malaysian Study. Anthrozoös, 21(4), Article 4. https://doi.org/10.2752/175303708X371582
Mohd Nizam bin Itam v Public Prosecutor, MLJU 743 (2021).
Morton, R., Hebart, M. L., & Whittaker, A. L. (2020). Explaining the Gap Between the Ambitious Goals and Practical Reality of Animal Welfare Law Enforcement: A Review of the Enforcement Gap in Australia. Animals, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030482
N. Trisha. (2021, March 15). Report lodged against man who shot and killed dog with an arrow. The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2021/03/15/report-lodged-against-man-who-shot-and-killed-dog-with-an-arrow
New Straits Times. (2019, November 5). Laundromat cat killer jailed 34 months and fined RM40,000. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/crime-courts/2019/11/536000/laundromat-cat-killer-jailed-34-months-and-fined-rm40000
Nurse, A. (2013). Animal harm: Perspectives on why people harm and kill animals. Ashgate.
Otieno, I. (2020). Animal Welfare in the Context of The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). OIE Global Forum on Animal Welfare. https://www.woah.org/app/uploads/2021/08/3-i-otieno-unep--sdg-apr2021.pdf
Pratiwinindya, R. A., Alfatah, N., Nugrahani, R., Triyanto, T., Prameswari, N. S., & Widagdo, P. B. (2021). The use of interactive multimedia to build awareness against animal exploitation in environmental conservation education for children. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1098(3), 032019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/1098/3/032019
Reese, L. A., Vertalka, J. J., & Richard, C. (2020). Animal Cruelty and Neighborhood Conditions. Animals, 10(11), Article 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112095
Stucki, S. (2020). Towards a Theory of Legal Animal Rights: Simple and Fundamental Rights. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 40(3), Article 3. https://doi.org/10.1093/ojls/gqaa007
Suzianah Nhazzla Ismail. (2022, September 14). End Animal Cruelty Day. Bernama. bernama.com/en/thoughts/news.php?id=2119674
The Star. (2021, November 12). Animal cruelty still rampant, says dept. The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/metro-news/2021/11/12/animal-cruelty-still-rampant-says-dept
World Animal Protection. (2020a). Animal Protection Index (API) 2020—Colombia. World Animal Protection. https://api.worldanimalprotection.org/country/colombia
World Animal Protection. (2020b). Animal Protection Index (API) 2020—Malaysia. World Animal Protection. https://api.worldanimalprotection.org/sites/default/files/api_2020_-_malaysia_0.pdf
World Organization for Animal Health. (2021). Terrestrial animal health code 2021 (Twenty-ninth edition). World Organization for Animal Health.
Zolkipli@Zulkifli, A. M. (2022). The Influence of Animal Welfare Act 2015 Enforcement on The Rise of Animal Cruelty Cases in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 7(12), Article 12. https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v7i12.1955