The Effectiveness Dimension of Training Initiatives on the Competitiveness and Sustainability of Micro-Asnaf Entrepreneurs.
The aim of this research study is to assess the effectiveness of training initiatives on the competitiveness and sustainability of Asnaf Micro-entrepreneurs (UMA). Asnaf Micro-entrepreneurs represent a vulnerable group that requires support and intervention to enhance their capabilities and entrepreneurial competitiveness. This study employs a quantitative research approach and collects data from a sample of n = 308 UMA participants who have undergone various training programmes. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique is used to analyse the data. The research findings reveal a significant positive relationship between different dimensions of training and the competitiveness of UMAs. Firstly, knowledge and skill development shows a significant positive effect on UMAs competitiveness, emphasising the importance of equipping UMAs with the necessary knowledge and expertise. Secondly, mindset and attitude formation is found to significantly influence UMA competitiveness, highlighting the role of fostering a growth-oriented mindset and a positive attitude in entrepreneurial success. Thirdly, networking initiatives and collaboration is proven to have a significant positive relationship with UMA competitiveness, highlighting the importance of nurturing networks, partnerships, and collaboration opportunities. Fourthly, access to resources and support demonstrates a significant positive effect on UMA competitiveness, emphasising the importance of providing UMA with adequate resources and support mechanisms.
Adam, A. M. (2020). Determination of Sample Size in Survey Research. Journal of Research and Scientific Reports, 26(5), 90-97.
Ahmed, N., Li, C., Qalati, A., Habib your Rehman, M., Khan, A., Rana, F., & Qalati, S. A. (2022). The Impact of Business Incubators on Sustainable Entrepreneurial Growth with Mediation Effects. Degruyter.Com, 12(2), 137–160.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411.
Anwar, M., & Li, S. (2021). Drive the competitiveness, financial and environmental performance of SMEs through government financial and non-financial support. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 23(5), 7860–7882.
Chislett, W. (2021). challenges and opportunities for SMEs in times of crisis. Real Instituto Elcan. www.
Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis. Current directions in psychological science, 1(3), 98-101.
Dlamini, T. M., Iwu, C. G., & Ogunlela, G. O. (2023). Support Strategies of Government-Owned Business Incubators for SMEs' Sustainability. In Leadership and Governance for Sustainability (pp. 222-241). IGI Global.
Eller, R., Alford, P., Kallmünzer, A., &; Peters, M. (2020). Antecedents, consequences, and challenges of digitizing small and simple enterprises. Journal of Business Research, 112 (September 2019), 119-127.
Farinha, L., & Bagchi-Sen, S. (2019). Following the competitive footprint of SMEs in the high-tech sector. In Innovation, Technology and Knowledge Management (pp. 77-95). Springer.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Graham, K. W., & Moore, R. S. (2021). The role of dynamic capabilities in the process of using firm-level technologies: Qualitative investigation. Journal of Innovation Management, 9(1), 25-50.
Gregori, P., Wdowiak, M. A., Schwarz, E. J., & Holzmann, P. (2019). Exploring value creation in sustainable entrepreneurship: Insights from the institutional logics perspective and the business model lens. Sustainability, 11(9), 2505.
Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report PLS-SEM results. European Business Review, 31(1), 2–24.
Havierniková, K., & Kordoš, M. (2019). The SMEs’ perception of financial risks in the context of cluster cooperation. Quantitative Finance and Economics, 3(3), 586-607.
Hervé, A., Schmitt, C., & Baldegger, R. (2020). Internationalization and Digitalization: Using digital technology for the internationalization process of small and medium enterprises. Technology Innovation Management Review, 10(7), 28-40.
Hutahayan, B., &; Yufra, S. (2019). The speed of innovation and competitiveness of small and medium food enterprises (SMEs) in Malang, Indonesia: Creative destruction as an intermediary. Journal of Basic Management of Science and Technology, 10(5), 1152–1173.
Lüdeke-Freund, F. (2020). Sustainable entrepreneurial, innovation, and business models: Integrative frameworks and recommendations for future research. Business and Environmental Strategy, 29(2), 665–681.
Mahmood, T. M. A. T., Al Mamun, A., Ahmad, G. B., & Ibrahim, M. D. (2019). Predicting entrepreneurial intentions and pre-start-up behaviour among Asnaf millennials. Sustainability, 11(18), 4939.
Marcysiak, A., & Pleskacz, Ż. (2021). Determinants of digitization in SMEs. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 9(1), 300.
Markus, G., & Rideg, A. (2020). Understanding the relationship between SME competitiveness and cash flow generation: empirical analysis from Hungary. Competitiveness Study, 31(3), 397–419.
Mohumad, N. H. S., Mastuki, N. A., Yusuf, S. N. S., & Zakaria, M. (2018). Management control system in ASNAF entrepreneurship development program by Lembaga Zakat Selangor. Journal of Management, 53(2018), 13–22.
Rahim, H. L., Kadir, M. A. B. A., Abidin, Z. Z., Junid, J., Kamaruddin, L. M., Lajin, N. F. M., ... & Bakri, A. A. (2015). Entrepreneurship education in Malaysia: A critical review. Journal of Technology Management and Business, 2(2).
Ramli, R., Ahmad, S., Wahid, H., & Harun, F. (2011). Memahami Sikap Asnaf: Pengalaman Malaysia Dalam Usaha Untuk Program Agihan Zakat Yang Berkesan. Persidangan Zakat Antarabangsa, 18. http://www.ukm.my/hairun/kertas kerja/Paper Raudha et al.pdf
Rizzi, F., Frey, M., Testa, F., & Appolloni, A. (2014). Environmental value chains in green MCC networks: The threat of the Abilene paradox. Journal of Net Expenditure, 85, 265–275.
Sarstedt, M., Hair, J. F., Pick, M., Liengaard, B. D., Radomir, L., & Ringle, C. M. (2022). Progress in partial least squares structural equation modeling use in marketing research in the last decade. Psychology & Marketing, 39(5), 1035-1064.
Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Smith, D., Reams, R., & Hair, J. F. (2014). Partial structural equation modeling of at least squared (PLS-SEM): A useful tool for family business researchers. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5(1), 105–115.
Taber, K. S. (2018). Use of Alpha Cronbach When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273–1296.
Tyszka, T., Cieślik, J., Domurat, A., & Macko, A. (2011). Motivation, self-efficacy, and risk attitude among entrepreneurs during the transition to a market economy. Socio-Economic Journal, 40(2), 124–131.
Volkmann, C., Fichter, K., Klofsten, M., & Audretsch, D. B. (2021). Sustainable entrepreneurial ecosystems: An emerging field of research. Small Business Economics, 56(3), 1047-1055.
Wong, K. K. K. (2019). Mastering partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-Sem) with Smartpls in 38 Hours. IUniverse.