Investigating the Physical Activity Demographic Profile of Student-Teachers at an Open Distance Learning Institution, Kuala Lumpur

  • Rosinah Mahmood Faculty of Education, Open University Malaysia, Kelana Centre Point, Jalan SS 7/19, Ss 7, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Roshafiza Hassan Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Fung Lan Loo Faculty of Education, Open University Malaysia, Kelana Centre Point, Jalan SS 7/19, Ss 7, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Md Rosli Ismail Faculty of Education, Open University Malaysia, Kelana Centre Point, Jalan SS 7/19, Ss 7, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
Keywords: physical activity, demographic profile, student-teachers, open distance learning, institution


Physical activity (PA) is crucial for maintaining a healthy lifestyle, yet it is often overlooked, and many individuals do not engage in regular exercise. In recent years, the rise of Open Distance Learning (ODL) institutions has transformed the educational landscape, enabling students to learn from various locations, including the convenience of their homes. However, this shift to distance learning may contribute to a sedentary lifestyle, particularly for student-teachers who spend extended hours in front of computer screens. This study investigates the health demographic profile of student-teachers within an Open Distance Learning (ODL) institution, emphasizing the impact of distance learning on physical activity levels. With 206 participants, a self-developed questionnaire was used for data collection. Findings revealed a generally low level of physical activity among student-teachers, highlighting the need for increased time, motivation, and suitable facilities. The study underscores the potential long-term consequences of poor health status and limited engagement in physical activities. Recommendations include encouraging student-teachers to incorporate even low-intensity movements into their daily routines. The implications and recommendations are discussed to address the sedentary lifestyle, emphasizing the importance of promoting physical activity for overall well-being.


Download data is not yet available.


Calestine, J., Bopp M., Bopp, C. M., & Papalia, Z. (2017). College student work habits are related to physical activity and fitness. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(7), 1009-1017.

Chu, Y. H., & Li, Y. C. (2022). The impact of online learning on physical and mental health in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5), 2966.

Creswell, J. W. & Creswell, J. D. (2022). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (6th ed.). Sage Publications.

Dempsey, P. C., Rowlands, A. V., Strain, T., Zaccardi, F., Dawkins, N., Razieh, C., ... & Yates, T. (2022). Physical activity volume, intensity, and incident cardiovascular disease. European Heart Journal, 43(46), 4789-4800.

Farley, A. N., & Chamberlain, L. M. (2021). The Teachers are Not Alright: A Call for Research and Policy on Teacher Stress and Well-Being. The New Educator, 17(3), 305–323.

Ibrahim, M. F., Wan Ismail, W. S., Nik Jaafar, N. R., Mohd Mokhtaruddin, U. K., Ong, H. Y., Abu Bakar, N. H., & Mohd Salleh Sahimi, H. (2022). Depression and its association with self-esteem and lifestyle factors among school-going adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 913067.

Jones, M., Bright, P., Hansen, L., Ihnatsenka, O., & Carek, P. J. (2019). Promoting physical activity in a primary care practice: Overcoming the barriers. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 15(2),158-164.

Mama, S. K., Soltero, E. G., & Joseph, R. P. (2023). Reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity among low active, underserved adults: A staircase approach. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 20(8), 677-679.

McCallum, C., Rooksby, J., Gray, C. M. (2018). Evaluating the impact of physical activity apps and wearables: Interdisciplinary review. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, 6(3):e58.

Mittal, A., Mantri, A., Tandon, U., & Dwivedi, Y. K. (2022). A unified perspective on the adoption of online teaching in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Information Discovery and Delivery, 50(2), 117-132.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (2022, March 24). Physical activity and your heart. Retrieved from

Ng, C. F. (2021). The physical learning environment of online distance learners in Higher Education: A conceptual model. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 635117.

Panza, G. A., Taylor, B. A., Thompson, P. D., White, C. M., & Pescatello, L. S (2019). Physical activity intensity and subjective well-being in healthy adults. Journal of Health Psychology, 24(9),1257-1267.

Pedersen, M. R. L., Hansen, A. F., & Elmose-Østerlund, K. (2021). Motives and barriers related to physical activity and sport across social backgrounds: implications for health promotion. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(11), 5810.

Powell, K. E., King, A. C., Buchner, D. M., Campbell, W. W., DiPietro, L., Erickson, K. I., ... & Whitt-Glover, M. C. (2018). The scientific foundation for the physical activity guidelines for Americans. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 16(1), 1-11. Retrieved from

Saghafi-Asl, M., Aliasgharzadeh, S., & Asghari-Jafarabadi, M. (2020). Factors influencing weight management behavior among college students: An application of the Health Belief Model. PloS one, 15(2), e0228058

Shoemaker, M. J., Mattern, M., Scholten, H., Zeitler, J., & Gore, S. (2021). Subjective daily physical activity measures in heart disease: A systematic review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 18(4), 450-460.

Tan, P. P. S., Sandhu, R. S., Zain, S. M., Hall, D., Tan, N. C., Lim, H. M., ... & Pung, Y. F. (2022). Health motivations and perceived barriers are determinants of self-care behaviour for the prevention of hypertension in a Malaysian community. Plos one, 17(12), e0278761.

Tassitano, R. (2023). More than ever, It is time to ensure regular opportunities for physical activity among children and adolescents: The potential of structured settings. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 20(5), 361-363.

Werneck, A. O., Araujo, R. H., Anza-Ramírez, C., Brazo-Sayavera, J., García-Witulski, C., Aguilar-Farias, N., ... & Silva, D. R. (2023). Physical activity and sitting time patterns and sociodemographic correlates among 155,790 South American adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 20(8), 716-726.

World Health Organization (2022, October 5 ). Physical activity. Retrieved December 2023 from

World Health Organization (2020, November 25). Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour. Retrieved December 2023 from

Zaidi, B., & Morgan, S. P. (2017). The second demographic transition theory: A review and appraisal. Annual review of sociology, 43, 473-492.

How to Cite
Mahmood, R., Hassan, R., Loo, F. L. and Ismail, M. R. (2024) “Investigating the Physical Activity Demographic Profile of Student-Teachers at an Open Distance Learning Institution, Kuala Lumpur”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 9(5), p. e002719. doi: 10.47405/mjssh.v9i5.2719.