A Phenomenological Exploration of "Write on the Ground" and Its Positive Effects on Elderly Well-being

  • Fengmei Zhang Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Normaliza Abd.Rahim Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: Aging population, Art education, Chinese calligraphy, Elderly education, Elderly well-being


With the global aging population, the quest for enhancing the well-being of the elderly has become increasingly crucial. Many scholars have demonstrated the positive impact of artistic activities and elderly education on improving the well-being of elderly individuals. Chinese calligraphy, as an ancient and enduring art form, has played a significant role in this regard. "Write on the Ground" is an intriguing phenomenon where Chinese elderly individuals engage in the study of calligraphy. Grounded in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, this study aims to examine the needs and positive effects of elderly individuals participating in "Write on the Ground" while learning Chinese calligraphy. Through purposive sampling, this research conducted interviews with eight individuals aged 60 and above in Guangzhou, China, who were learning Chinese calligraphy through "Write on the Ground" Qualitative data analysis was applied to the interview findings. The study's findings indicate that learning Chinese calligraphy positively impacts the elderly, improving their social interactions, fostering a sense of accomplishment, and facilitating personal growth, ultimately contributing to their overall well-being. Additionally, the research unveils issues concerning the educational needs of the elderly. It not only emphasizes the positive impact of art education on elderly well-being but also underscore the importance of addressing the unique needs of the elderly in terms of education. This study offers valuable insights for administrators and education practitioners, emphasizing the need to focus on the effectiveness of art education for the elderly in promoting their well-being.


Download data is not yet available.


Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. SAGE publications.

Čereškevičiūtė, S., & Ratnikaitė, I. (2023). Application of Artistic Activities as a Sociocultural Service for the Elderly. Health Care And Social Work, 1(1), 19-26.https://ojs.svako.lt/SPSD/article/view/157

Desmet, P., & Fokkinga, S. (2020). Beyond Maslow’s pyramid: introducing a typology of thirteen fundamental needs for human-centered design. Multimodal technologies and interaction, 4(3), 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/mti4030038

Dsouza, J. M., Chakraborty, A., & Kamath, N. (2023). Intergenerational communication and elderly well-being. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 20, 101251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2023.101251

Han, K., You, W., Zuo, H., Li, M., & Sun, L. (2023). Glancing back at your hearing: Generating emotional calligraphy typography from musical rhythm. Displays, 80, 102529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2023.102529

Ketley, R., Darwin, Z., Masterson, C., & McGowan, L. (2024). Women’s experience of post-traumatic growth following a traumatic birth: An interpretive phenomenological analysis. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 42(1), 126-137.https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2022.2070608

Lacoe, J. (2016). Too scared to learn? The academic consequences of feeling unsafe in the classroom. Urban Education, 55(10), 1385–1418. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085916674059

Lai X. F, Zhang D. S. & Li H. W. (2023). Ji Ji Lao Ling Guan Shi Yu Xia She Qu Lao Nian Jiao Yu De Shi Jian Yu Tan Suo ——Yi Guang Zhou Shi Yue Xiu Qu Wei Li [Practice and Exploration of Community Elderly Education from the Perspective of Positive Aging Perspective - Taking Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City as an Example]. Guang Zhou Cheng Shi Zhi Ye Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 1, 6-10. https://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-GCMX202301002.htm

Lee, C. C., Yan, J., & Wang, F. (2024). Impact of population aging on food security in the context of artificial intelligence: Evidence from China. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 199, 123062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2023.123062

Leong, D. P., Teo, K. K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum Jr, A., & Orlandini, A. (2018). World Population Prospects 2019. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Dynamics. New York (NY): United Nations; 2019 (https://population. un. org/wpp/Download/, accessed 20 September 2020). The decade of healthy ageing. Geneva: World Health Organization. World, 73(7), 362k2469.

Liu H. L. (2021). Shi Jie He Zhong Guo Ren Kou Lao Ling Hua Fa Zhan Tai Shi [Development Trend of Population Aging in the World and China]. Lao Ling Ke Xue Yan Jiu, 9(12), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.2095-5898.2021.12.002

Mao, G. (2021). Guang Zhou Shi Lao Nian Jiao Yu Zheng Ce Zhi Xing Yan Jiu [Research on the Implementation of Educational Policy for the Elderly in Guangzhou] [Doctor's Thesis, Guang Xi Shi Fan University]. https://doi.org/10.27036/d.cnki.ggxsu.2021.000542

Mogro-Wilson, C., & Tredinnick, L. (2020). Influencing social and emotional awareness and empathy with a visual arts and music intervention for adolescents. Children & Schools, 42(2), 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/cdaa008

Mohammadi Safa, N., Younesi, S. J., Foroughan, M., Ahmadi, S., & Rostami, M. (2024). The Effectiveness of Life Review Therapy on Self-Actualization and Happiness in the Elderly. Iranian Journal of Ageing, 18(4), 502-517. https://doi.org/10.32598/sija.2023.3518.1

Morse, J. M. (1994). Designing funded qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 220–235). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Peng, L. T. (2023). Shen Ru Wa Jue Shu Fa Yi Shu De Wen Hua Na Han [Deeply Exploring the Cultural Connotation of Calligraphy Art]. Shu Fa Bao, 026. https://doi.org/10.28689/n.cnki.nsfbz.2023.000409

Peng, X. (2021). Coping with population ageing in mainland China. Asian Population Studies, 17(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2020.1834197

Rahim, N. A., Pawi, A. A. A., & Muhamad Affendi, N. R. N. (2018). Integration of Values and Culture in Malay Folklore Animation. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 26(1). http://psasir.upm.edu.my/id/eprint/60247/1/21%20JSSH-1859-2016-3rdProof.pdf

Segbenya, M., Onomah, J., Kangmennaang, R., & Grantson, E. (2024). Exploring the awareness, preparedness and the state of pension among informal workers in Ghana. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 9, 100776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2023.100776

Simo-Tabue, N., Magnerou, M. A., Mounsamy, L., Metamno, S., Letchimy, L., Dartigues, J. F. & Tabué-Teguo, M. (2024). Factors associated with severe cognitive decline in community-dwelling older persons in Cameroon (Sub-Saharan African). https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-3818956/v1

Song, P. (2020). Ren Kou Lao Ling Hua Shi Yu Xia Wo Guo Lao Nian Jiao Yu Tui Jin Yan Jiu [Research on the Advancement of Senior Education in my country from the Perspective of Population Aging] [Doctor's thesis, Shanxi University]. https://doi.org/10.27284/d.cnki.gsxiu.2020.000233

Wang, C. (2023a). Han Tang Shu Fa Jiao Yu Si Xiang Zhi Yu Dang Dai Xue Xiao Shu Fa Jiao Yu De Zuo Yong Yu Yi Yi [The Role and Significance of Han and Tang Calligraphy Education Thought in Contemporary School Calligraphy Education] [Master's thesis, Shenyang Normal University]. https://doi.org/10.27328/d.cnki.gshsc.2023.000761

Wang, Y. (2023b). Hai Nan Sheng Gao Deng Yuan Xiao Mei Shu Jiao Yu Zhuan Ye Shu Fa Xiang Guan Ke Cheng Kai She De Xian Zhuang Yu Si Kao [Current Situation and Reflection on the Offering of Calligraphy Related Courses in Fine Arts Education Majors in Higher Education Institutions in Hainan Province]. Mei Shu Jiao Yu Yan Jiu, 19, 73-75.

Wang, Z., Hua, L., Huang, Y., Deng, X., Zhao, Y., Xiao, Y., & Li, J. (2023). Chinese calligraphic handwriting practice promotes positive affect in adolescents: Converging evidence from correlational and experimental designs. Acta Psychologica, 241, 104057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2023.104057

Wong, A., So, J., & Ng, Z. T. B. (2024). Developing a web application for Chinese calligraphy learners using convolutional neural network and scale invariant feature transform. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 100200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.caeai.2024.100200

Wu, Y.X. (2020). Xie Hao Zi ,Zuo Hao Ren ——Qian Tan Shu Fa Jiao Yu De Yu Ren Gong Nen [Writing well and being a good person - On the educational function of calligraphy education]. Cai Zhi, 16, 81.

Xia, X.W, & Yu, H. (2020). Research on the Elderly Education Model Based on Autonomous Learning Groups under the Regular Situation of COVID-19 Epidemic Prevention and Control. Open Access Library Journal, 7(10), 1-10. https:// doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106861

Yang, B., Zhang, Z. & Zhao, S. (2022). Wo Guo Lao Nian Jiao Yu De Yan Jiu Re Dian Ji Fa Zhan Qu Shi [Research hotspots and development trends of senior education in my country]. Ji Xu Jiao Yu Yan Jiu, 07, 43-48.

Yu, Y. (2022). Thwarted Belongingness Hindered Successful Aging in Chinese Older Adults: Roles of Positive Mental Health and Meaning in Life. Frontiers in Psychology, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.839125

Zeng, W. (2021). The Influence and Communication of Chinese Calligraphy in South Korea. In The 6th International Conference on Arts, Design and Contemporary Education (ICADCE 2020) (pp. 720-723). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.210106.137

Zhao, X. (2023). Shu Fa Ren Lei Xue Dao Lun ——Ji Yu Shu Xie Chuang Zao Xing Er You De Yi Zhong Wen Hua Zhuan Xing De Kao Cha [Introduction to Calligraphy Anthropology - An Examination of a Cultural Transformation Based on Writing Creativity]. Min Zu Yi Shu, 04, 119-138. https://doi.org/10.16564/j.cnki.1003-2568.2023.04.016

Zhu, H., & Walker, A. (2022). Why China needs an active social policy on ageing. Asian Population Studies, 18(2), 190-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2021.1955444

Zhu, X., & Li, C. (2021). A phenomenological exploration of the square dance among the Chinese elderly in urbanised communities. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 28, 100494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2021.100494

How to Cite
Zhang, F. and Abd.Rahim, N. (2024) “A Phenomenological Exploration of "Write on the Ground" and Its Positive Effects on Elderly Well-being”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 9(5), p. e002833. doi: 10.47405/mjssh.v9i5.2833.