Modern Theories and Islamic Concept of Jihad Impacting Pakistan Security Dilemma

  • Muhammad Tariq Javed International Relations Department, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
Keywords: Pakistan's security dilemma, crusades, modern theories, Jihad, realism, liberalism


Pakistan National Security is directly related to a mix of Islamic precepts and the implications of contemporary real politics. Initially modern theories were a philosophical response to priesthood of the time hedging Christianity for their own predominance. With the advent of Islam the West applied the same antipathy to the faith of Islam and later it impacted Muslim states and Regions. The West however, circumvented religion as historical legacy representing Christianity. Pakistan being part of wider Muslim world is prone to historically prejudiced; direct and indirect threats based on Modern political theories. Modern theories are Euro-centric owing to their war prone regional history. Islamic Security concepts characterize trans-border implication. Modern political and security perspective are based on; personal experience of the people gone through wars and civil chaos whereas Islamic concept of just war is based on faith absolutes and Meta narratives1. Modern theories imply human nature as a pivot to craft response in anticipation of a predetermined threat to justify pre-emption. Modern theories have become the seed of modern state policies. Islam makes it obligatory to prepare and built power to first deter and retaliate only under tyranny, oppression and under the threat of expulsion and extermination. Pakistan military initiative are deemed inspired by Islamic concept of Jihad and have become cause of her Security Dilemma due to prejudiced Western view. Islam emphasis on mankind as one whole universal community called ‘Ummah’. The modern theories divide the world on National identifies and globalizes only trade and transactions. National Interest in modern theories is pivotal to the state policies. This marked difference is sometime purposely confused as a strategy to dub even a legitimate resistance or movement as Terrorism depending on National Interest expediency. The major cause of conflict is embedded in Islamic and modern political connotations of a just war. These polemical perspectives explain Pakistan Security Dilemma as part of the Muslim world and a need for negotiated understanding for peace and stability and interfaith harmony.

Abstract views: 309 , PDF downloads: 45


Download data is not yet available.


Anatol Lieven. (2011). A Washington Post web page. Retrieved from Opinion: pakistan/2011/05/24/AGkPs4HH_print.html

Armstrong, K. (2002). Islam: A Short History. London, UK: Phonix.

Benard, C. (2004). U.S. Strategy in the Muslim world After 9/11. US: Rand: Project Air Force.

Burchill, S. (2001). Theoires of International Relations . New York: Palgrave.

Buzan, B. (2008). People States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-cold War Era. Colchester, UK: ECPR Press.

Carr, E. H. (1964). Twenty Years' Crisis, 1919-1939. HarperCollins.

Donnely, J. (2005). Theories of International Relations (Third Edition). New York: Palgrave.

Dunne, T. (2001). The Golbalization of the World Politics. Bath, Avon, UK: Oxford University Press.

Eck, D. L. (2016, November 8). The Pluralism Project. Retrieved from Harvard University web site:

Flurry, G. (2016). The Trumpet. Retrieved from The Trumpet web site :

Hans. J. Morgenthau, K. T. (1948). Politics Among Nations. Lahore: Vanguard Books.

Hobbes, T. (1914). Leviathan. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.

Hobes, T. (2020). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved January 2, 2020, from

Hough, P. (2004). Understanding global security. London: Routledge.

Internationalrelations. (2016, December 15). Liberalism . Retrieved from International :

Jill, S. (2001). An Introduction to International Theories . Essex, England: Pearson Education Lmited.

Johnson, J. T. (1997). The Holy war idea in Western and Islamic traditions. Pensalovania : Pensalovania state press.

Kabbani, S. H. (2016). Understanding Islam . Retrieved from The Islamic Srpeme Council of America:

Katehon. (2016). Principles of liberalism in International Relation . Retrieved from A Katehon web site:

Ken Booth, N. W. (2007). The Security Dilemma. Palgrave.

Keohane, R. (2012). Twenty Years of Institutional Liberalism. International Relations Vol.26 , 125-138.

Mansfield, E. D. (1994). Pwer, trade, and war. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

Marx. (1848). Manifesto of the Communst Party. Retrieved from

Moravcsik, A. (1992). Liberalism and International Relations Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Mujahid, S. a. (2001, p.134). logy of Pakistan. Rawalpindi: Services Book Club.

Sayed Khatab, G. D. (2007). Democracy in Islam. Oxon: Routledge.

Schueuer, M. (2006). Through our Enemies's Eyes . Washington D.C.: Potomic Book, Inc. .

StandforEcyclopedia. (2013, April 2). Political Realism in International Relations. Retrieved from A standfor university web site:

Stoessinger. (2010). Why nations go to war. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Towle, R. J. (2006). Temptations of Power: Politics after 9/11. New York U.S.A.: Palgrave .

Waltz, K. N. (1959). Man, the State, and War: A Theoratical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press.
How to Cite
Javed, M. (2020) “Modern Theories and Islamic Concept of Jihad Impacting Pakistan Security Dilemma”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 5(9), pp. 76 - 89. doi: