Index Developing and Modelling the Factors of Academic Procrastination among University Students

  • Ahmad Shahrizal Bin Amran Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)
  • Malina Binti Zulkifli Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)
Keywords: academic procrastination, lack of motivation, overconfidence, self-esteem, social problem


Procrastination is a very common and becomes a problem among students nowadays. Procrastination will give the negative effect on the learning style of students, resulting in their low achievements in performing tasks and examination of maybe it will cause failure in the examinations, resulting in anxiety and also depression next lowering in their morale. This study aims to develop an index of procrastination and to model the factors of procrastination among university students. The factors that have been considered in this study are self-esteem, lack of motivation, overconfidence and social problems. The sample of 203 students of year 1 and year 3 had been selected using the stratified sampling. In developing the index, the weightage is very important. The index developed has been categorized into 4 categories, Low Academic Procrastination (0.24 and below), Average Academic Procrastination (0.25 to 0.50), Above Average Academic Procrastination (0.51 to 0.75) and High Academic Procrastination (0.76 and above). Study also reveal that there is no significant mean different in Gender, Year of Study and Type of Program. Furthermore, from the Pearson’s Correlation Analysis result found that all the explanatory variables (lack motivation, self-esteem, confidence level and overconfidence) having the positive relation relationship with the dependent variable even it contribute the weak relationship. Among the four of independent variables only two variable were significant and 5 percent level of significance which are Lack of motivation and Overconfidence. Finding revealed that variable lack of motivation is the most influent factor towards academic procrastination.

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How to Cite
Amran, A. S. and Zulkifli, M. (2020) “Index Developing and Modelling the Factors of Academic Procrastination among University Students”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 5(9), pp. 63 - 75. doi: