Community Attitude towards Urban Green-Blue Space and Perceived Cultural Ecosystem Benefits: A Preliminary Study at Taiping Lake Garden, Perak, Malaysia

  • Mohammad Izzamil Mohd Nasir Geography Section, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Asyirah Abdul Rahim Geography Section, School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
Keywords: community attitudes, cultural ecosystem services, green-blue space, sustainable cities and communities, sustainability


blue spaces. Attitude towards green-blue space were also studied. However, little attention is given to perceived benefits and attitude components in ecosystem service research. This paper aims to examine community attitudes towards urban green-blue spaces and its association with perceived benefits based on cultural ecosystem services concept. A questionnaire was conducted among 31 respondents of local community at Taiping Lake Garden, Perak. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) which involving multiple regression to capture the effects of attitude components on perceived benefits. The findings suggest that overall attitudes of respondents had an excellent level of perceived attitudes toward urban green-blue space. However, among three sub-construct of attitudes, only cognitive attitude was found to be the dominant variable compared to conative and affective attitude that predicts perceived cultural ecosystem benefits. This indicates that if the community could enhance their positive attitudes toward their urban green-blue space, they may perceive higher cultural ecosystem benefits. Future research should continue to explore ways of enhancing positive attitudes among urban community as attitude may guide them to enhance their engagement in urban green-blue spaces.

Abstract views: 44 , PDF downloads: 52


Download data is not yet available.


Abasolo, E., Saito, O., Matsui, T., & Morioka, T. (2008). Perception and attitude towards ecosystem services in the urban areas. Tech. J. Philipp. Ecosyst. Nat. Resour, 17, 81-100.

Abass, K., Appiah, D. O., & Afriyie, K. (2019). Does green space matter? Public knowledge and attitude towards urban greenery in Ghana. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 46, 126462.

Abun, D., Magallanes, T., Encarnacion, M. J., Alkalde, F., & Somera, K. (2019). Investigation of Cognitive and Affective Attitude of Students toward Environment and Their Environmental Behavioural Intention to Join Environmental Movement and Energy Conservation. The International Journal of Business Management and Technology, 3(6), 110-129.

Alemu, D. S., & Shea, D. (2019). A path analysis of diagnosis of organizational levels of functionality. International Journal of Educational Management 33(7), 1515-1525.

Arifin, M. Z., Khoir, M., & Purwanto, B. E. (2020). Community attitudes towards biogas as an alternative energy and environmental quality improvement. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1517, p. 012043).

Balram, S., & Dragićević, S. (2005). Attitudes toward urban green spaces: integrating questionnaire survey and collaborative GIS techniques to improve attitude measurements. Landscape and urban planning, 71(2-4), 147-162.

Baur, J. W., Ries, P., & Rosenberger, R. S. (2020). A relationship between emotional connection to nature and attitudes about urban forest management. Urban Ecosystems, 23(1), 187-197.

Baur, J. W., Tynon, J. F., Ries, P., & Rosenberger, R. S. (2016). Public attitudes about urban forest ecosystem services management: A case study in Oregon cities. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 17, 42-53.

Buchel, S., & Frantzeskaki, N. (2015). Citizens’ voice: A case study about perceived ecosystem services by urban park users in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Ecosystem Services, 12, 169-177.

Chen, B., Bao, Z., & Zhu, Z. (2006). Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(5), 26.

Chen, S., Wang, Y., Ni, Z., Zhang, X., & Xia, B. (2020). Benefits of the ecosystem services provided by urban green infrastructures: Differences between perception and measurements. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 54, 126774.

Chowdhury, S. K., & Salam, M. (2015). Predicting Attitude Based on Cognitive, Affective and Conative Components: An Online Shopping Perspective. Stamford Journal of Business Studies, 2(6), 101-115.

Cobbinah, P. B. (2015). Local attitudes towards natural resources management in rural Ghana. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 26 (3), 423-436.

Daniel, T. C., Muhar, A., Arnberger, A., Aznar, O., Boyd, J. W., Chan, K. M., Costanza, R., Elmqvist, T., Flint, C. G., Gobster, P. H., Grêt-Regamey, A., Lave, R., Muhar, S., Penker, M., Ribe, R. G., Schauppenlehner, T., Sikor, T., Soloviy, I., Spierenburg, M., … von der Dunk, A. (2012). Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(23), 8812-8819.

Dickinson, D. C., & Hobbs, R. J. (2017). Cultural ecosystem services: Characteristics, challenges and lessons for urban green space research. Ecosystem Services, 25, 179-194.

Divandari, J., Emamian, Z. S., Mansouri, H., Jorkesh, Z., Ajalloeian, R., Sadeghpour, A. H., & Jayhani, H. (2016). The role of structural elements of persian garden in mental health. IIOAB JOURNAL, 7, 21-27.

Dzhambov, A. M., Markevych, I., Hartig, T., Tilov, B., Arabadzhiev, Z., Stoyanov, D., Gatseva., P & Dimitrova, D. D. (2018). Multiple pathways link urban green-and bluespace to mental health in young adults. Environmental research, 166, 223-233.

Faccioli, M., Czajkowski, M., Glenk, K., & Martin-Ortega, J. (2020). Environmental attitudes and place identity as determinants of preferences for ecosystem services. Ecological Economics, 174, 106600.

Fengdi, M. (2020). Spatial equity analysis of urban green space based on Spatial Design Network Analysis (sDNA): A case study of central Jinan, China. Sustainable Cities and Society, 102256.

Fumagalli, N., Fermani, E., Senes, G., Boffi, M., Pola, L., & Inghilleri, P. (2020). Sustainable Co-Design with Older People: The Case of a Public Restorative Garden in Milan (Italy). Sustainability, 12(8), 3166.

Grellier, J., White, M. P., Albin, M., Bell, S., Elliott, L. R., Gascón, M., Gualdi, S., Mancini, L., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Sarigiannis, D. A., van den Bosch, M., Wolf, T., Wuijts, S. & Fleming, L. E. (2017). BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces. BMJ open, 7(6), e016188.

Gunnarsson, B., Knez, I., Hedblom, M., & Sang, Å. O. (2017). Effects of biodiversity and environment-related attitude on perception of urban green space. Urban Ecosystems, 20(1), 37-49.

Hosaka, T., Sugimoto, K., & Numata, S. (2017). Effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance of urban residents toward hornets and wild boars in Japan. PloS one, 12(4), e0175243.

Khan, I., Lei, H., Ali, G., Ali, S., & Zhao, M. (2019). Public Attitudes, Preferences and Willingness to Pay for River Ecosystem Services. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), 3707.

Lagbas, A. J. (2019). Social valuation of regulating and cultural ecosystem services of Arroceros Forest Park: A man-made forest in the city of Manila, Philippines. Journal of Urban Management, 8(1), 159-177.

Lee, H. M., Song, H. J., Lee, C. K., & Reisinger, Y. (2019). Formation of festival visitors’ environmentally friendly attitudes: cognitive, affective, and conative components. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(2), 142-146.

Lee, Y. C., & Kim, K. H. (2015). Attitudes of citizens towards urban parks and green spaces for urban sustainability: The case of Gyeongsan City, Republic of Korea. Sustainability, 7(7), 8240-8254.

Liordos, V., Foutsa, E., & Kontsiotis, V. J. (2020). Differences in encounters, likeability and desirability of wildlife species among residents of a Greek city. Science of The Total Environment, 139892.

Makanyeza, C. (2014). Measuring consumer attitude towards imported poultry meat products in a developing market: An assessment of reliability, validity and dimensionality of the tri-component attitude model. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(20), 874.

Mao, Q., Wang, L., Guo, Q., Li, Y., Liu, M., & Xu, G. (2020). Evaluating cultural ecosystem services of urban residential green spaces from the perspective of residents' satisfaction with green space. Frontiers in public health, 8, 226.

Martinez-Harms, M. J., Bryan, B. A., Wood, S. A., Fisher, D. M., Law, E., Rhodes, J. R., Dobbs, C., Biggs, D. & Wilson, K. A. (2018). Inequality in access to cultural ecosystem services from protected areas in the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. Science of the total environment, 636, 1128-1138.

McGinlay, James, David J. Parsons, Joe Morris, Anil Graves, Marie Hubatova, Richard B. Bradbury, and James M. Bullock. "Leisure activities and social factors influence the generation of cultural ecosystem service benefits." Ecosystem services 31 (2018): 468-480.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, M. E. A. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Müller, S. M., Peisker, J., Bieling, C., Linnemann, K., Reidl, K., & Schmieder, K. (2019). The importance of cultural ecosystem services and biodiversity for landscape visitors in the biosphere reserve Swabian Alb (Germany). Sustainability, 11(9), 2650.

Olivero-Lora, S., Meléndez-Ackerman, E., Santiago, L., Santiago-Bartolomei, R., & García-Montiel, D. (2020). Attitudes toward Residential Trees and Awareness of Tree Services and Disservices in a Tropical City. Sustainability, 12(1), 117.

Ortiz, J., Chiu, T. S., Wen-Hai, C., & Hsu, C. W. (2017). Perceived justice, emotions, and behavioral intentions in the Taiwanese food and beverage industry. International Journal of Conflict Management, 28(4), 437-463.

Peng, Y., Feng, T., & Timmermans, H. (2019). A path analysis of outdoor comfort in urban public spaces. Building and Environment, 148, 459-467.

Prati, G., Albanesi, C., & Pietrantoni, L. (2017). The interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. A longitudinal study. Environmental Education Research, 23(2), 176-191.

Rosenberg, M. J. & Hovland, C. I. (1960). Cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes. In Rosenberg, M. J., Attitude organization and change: an analysis of consistency among attitude components (pp. 1-14). Yale University Press.

Rózová, Z., Turanovičová, M., & Stašová, S. (2020). Recreation in the City-A Part of Cultural Ecosystem Services. Ekológia, 39(2), 190-200.

Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (2004). Consumer behaviour, 8th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Schindler, M., Le Texier, M., & Caruso, G. (2018). Spatial sorting, attitudes and the use of green space in Brussels. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 31, 169-184.

Sefcik, J. S., Kondo, M. C., Klusaritz, H., Sarantschin, E., Solomon, S., Roepke, A., ... & Jacoby, S. F. (2019). Perceptions of nature and access to green space in four urban neighborhoods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(13), 2313.

Streiner, D. L. (2005). Finding our way: an introduction to path analysis. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(2), 115-122.

Thani, S. K. S. O., Ibrahim, N. K., Mohamad, N. H. N., & Rodzi, N. I. M. (2015). Public awareness towards conservation of English landscape at Taiping Lake Garden, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168, 181-190.

Trandafilović, I., Pašić, V., & Perunović, S. (2013). The research of cognitive and affective behaviour during shopping. Economics and Organization, 10(2), 147-164.

Walker, C., Fleischer, S., & Winn, S. (2008). A path analysis of first-year social science students’ engagement with their degree and Level 1 academic outcome. Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences, 1(2), 1-19.

Wójcik, A. (2017). Towards greener society-educational aspect of playground areas. Examples from Bundesgartenschau 2015. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM, 17, 859-866.

Wyles, K. J., White, M. P., Hattam, C., Pahl, S., King, H., & Austen, M. (2019). Are some natural environments more psychologically beneficial than others? The importance of type and quality on connectedness to nature and psychological restoration. Environment and Behavior, 51(2), 111-143.

Zheng, T., Yan, Y., Lu, H., Pan, Q., Zhu, J., Wang, C., Zhang, W., Rong, Y & Zhan, Y. (2020). Visitors’ perception based on five physical senses on ecosystem services of urban parks from the perspective of landsenses ecology. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 27(3), 214-223.
How to Cite
Mohd Nasir, M. I. and Abdul Rahim, A. (2020) “Community Attitude towards Urban Green-Blue Space and Perceived Cultural Ecosystem Benefits: A Preliminary Study at Taiping Lake Garden, Perak, Malaysia”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 5(11), pp. 228 - 239. doi: