A Daughter Not a Son as Predictor of Reggio Emilia Early Childhood Development Acceptance: Paradigm Shift in Households of Rural Areas in Northern Nigeria

  • Ibrahim Abdullahi School of Arts and Social Sciences, Isa Kaita College of Education, Dutsinma, Katsina State, Nigeria
  • Zumilah Zainalaudin Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia
  • Laily Hj. Paim Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia
  • Mariani Mansoon Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia
Keywords: daughters, sons, acceptance, children education, rural households

Abstract

Having daughters, not sons to predict accepting education although for children may be controversial in a patriarchal society, whiles in the actual sense is merit. This is so, as society first, perceived daughter and son from traditional gender ideology instead of the human capital view. Patriarchal society feels guilty when daughters turn out as determined, assertive, and competent than sons. This paper explores predictors of Reggio Emilia Early Childhood development (REA-ECD) acceptance, as a paradigm shift to educating daughters and sons equally in rural households basis for gender development. A paradigm shift is a changing thought from a traditional belief to a reality of life in society. The paper draws analysis on collected data from 216 households in Binary Logistic Regression (BLR). It identified daughters as a predictor of high REA-ECD acceptance in rural northern Nigeria. The paper constructed a household background Models with the conclusion that breakthrough may be through curtailing traditional gender-based stratification as daughters instead of sons predicted RAE-ECD acceptance. Therefore, the patriarchal system may erode through gender development education, and future mothers might have increased in human capital quality. This may be easier with the provision of policies, studies, and indigenous knowledge and skills improvement.

Statistics
Abstract views: 48 , PDF downloads: 44

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abbas, Ali Ibrahim, and Hadiza Mali Bukar. (2017). “Perspectives on Gendered Education Development in Nigeria : Evidence from Akademia Baru Journal of Advanced Research in Perspectives on Gendered Education Development in Nigeria : Evidence from Yobe State, Nigeria, 2009-2015.” Journal of Advanced Research in Social and Behavioural Sciences 9 (1): 57–74.

Abdu, Ado, Ahmad Hariza Hashim, and Abu-Samah Asnarulkhadi. (2014). “Relationship between Background Characteristics and Residential Satisfaction of Young Households in Unplanned Neighbourhoods in Kano, Nigeria.” Journal of Humanities and Social Science 19 (10): 138–45. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-19108138145.

Ibrahim Abdullahi. (2013). “Empowering Rural Girls through Education: Way of Reducing Vulnerability and Improving Family Economic Wellbeing in Rural Northern Nigeria.” IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science 18 (1): 57–61. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-1815761.

Abdullahi, Ibrahim, and Sani Maiunguwa. (2014). “Gender Parity and Poverty in Rural Households of Nigeria: Empowerment as A Way Forward.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science 19 (1): 95–99. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-19139599.

Abdullahi, Ibrahim, Zumilah Zainalaludin, and Laily Bint Paim. (2013). “A Distinct Gap in Gendered Impact of Girls Education Empowerment on Family Wellbeing in Rural Katsina, Northern Nigeria.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 2 (4).

Abu-Dalbouh, Hussain Mohammad. (2013). “A Questionnaire Approach Based on the Technology Acceptance Model for Mobile Tracking on Patient Progress Applications.” Journal of Computer Science 9 (6): 763–70. https://doi.org/10.3844/jcssp.2013.763.770.

Adamu, Abdullahi. (2017). “Economic Analysis of Resource Conservation and Households’ Preferences of Attributes in Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands, Nigeria.” Ph.D. Thesis University Putra Malaysia.

Aisha, Ibrahim Ningi. (2016a). “Influence of Socio-Cultural Values on Girl-Child Education in Yobe State, Nigeria.” PhD. Thesis University Putra Malaysia. http://www.upm.edu.my/about_us/OurLoc?LANG=en.

Aisha, Ibrahim Ningi, and Hamza bubakar Yahuza. (2018). “Content Analysis of Some Historical Facts and the General Position of Islam on Girls Education.” International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Studies (IJHSSS) 6959 (36): 8–12. https://doi.org/10.29032/ijhsss.v5.i1.2018.36-43.

Al-Sayyed, Fareed, and Baker Abdalhaq. (2016). “Interventional Factors Affecting Instructors Adoption of E-Learning System: A Case Study of Palestine.” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 83 (1): 119–37. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.46.2.186.11926.

Alharbi, Saleh, and Steve Drew. (2014). “Using the Technology Acceptance Model in Understanding Academics’ Behavioural Intention to Use Learning Management Systems.” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 5 (1). https://doi.org/10.14569/IJACSA.2014.050120.

Alizadeh, Shahla, Mansor B Abu Talib, Rohani Abdullah, and Mansor Mariani. (2011). “Relationship between Parenting Style and Children’s Behavior Problems.” Asian Social Science 7 (12): 195–200. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v7n12p195.

Altman, Douglas G, and Per Kragh Andersen. (1989). “Bootstrap Investigation of the Stability of a Cox Regression Model.” Statistics in Medicine 8 (7): 771–83.

Alto, Michelle, Elizabeth Handley, Fred Rogosch, Dante Cicchetti, and Sheree Toth. (2018). “Maternal Relationship Quality and Peer Social Acceptance as Mediators between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms : Gender Di Ff Erences.” Journal of Adolescence 63 (August 2017): 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.12.004.

Alvergne, Alexandra, Charlotte Faurie, and Michel Raymond. (2007). “Differential Facial Resemblance of Young Children to Their Parents : Who Do Children Look like More ?” Natural Resource Management 28: 135–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2006.08.008.

Amali, I. o., Bello Muhinat, and P Ijeoma. (2016). “An Assessment of Pre-Primary School.” European Scientific Journal 8 (8): 73–82.

Amina, Ibrahim Inkani. (2015). “Households ’ Vulnerability and Adaptation To Water Scarcity in Rural Areas, Katsina State , Nigeria.” Ph.D Thesis, University of Narobi, Kenya.

Anna, Baldacchino. (2010). “Localizing Reggio: Adapting the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education in Three Childcare Centres on Prince Edward Island.” Msc Thesis, Universityof Prince Edward Island.

Anne, B. Onyekwuluje. (1998). “Multiculturalism, Diversity and Impact Parent and Schools Have on Societal Rece Relationship.” The School Community Journal 8 (2).

Arthur, Skye Mac. (2018). “An Investigation of Foundation Phase Teachers’ Classroom Practices to Promote Student Engagement as an Inclusive Pedagogy.”

Ary, D, L C Jacobs, A Razavieh, and C Sorensen. (2006). “Introduction to Research in Education: Thomson Wadsworth.” Belmont, CA.

Audu, B M, S J Yahya, and A Bassi. (2006). “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Natural Family Planning Methods in a Population with Poor Utilisation of Modern Contraceptives.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 26 (6): 555–60.

Banerjee, Amitav, and Suprakash Chaudhury. (2010). “Statistics without Tears: Populations and Samples.” Industrial Psychiatry Journal 19 (1): 60.

Bekker-Grob, Esther W de, Bas Donkers, Marcel F Jonker, and Elly A Stolk. (2015). “Sample Size Requirements for Discrete-Choice Experiments in Healthcare: A Practical Guide.” The Patient-Patient-Centered Outcomes Research 8 (5): 373–84.

Broadband Commission Working Group on the Digital Gender Divide. (2017). “Recommendations for Action: Bridging the Gender Gap in Internet and Broadband Access and Use.” Broadband Commission Working Group on the Digital Gender Divide, under the Auspices of the United Nations (UN) Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development., no. March: 48.

Butler, Judith. (2004). Unduing Gender. New York and London: ROUTLEDGE NEW YORK AND LONDON.

Carter, Michael J. (2014). “Gender Socialization and Identity Theory.” Social Sciences 3 (1): 242–63. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci3020242.

Christman, Dana E, and Rhonda L McClellan. (2012). “Discovering Middle Space: Distinctions of Sex and Gender in Resilient Leadership.” The Journal of Higher Education 83 (5): 648–70.

Cochran, W.O. (1977). Smrrpling TecIrniqun. 3RD Editio. New York.: John Wiley &: Sons.

Cockerill, C a, S M Chilton, and W G Hutchinson. (2007). “Household Decision Making Models And The Value Of Child Farm Safety.” Journal of Agricultural Econmic Society 81st Annual Conference, University of Reading, UK.

Conboy, Kieran, Guy Fitzgerald, and Lars Mathiassen. (2012). “Qualitative Methods Research in Information Systems: Motivations, Themes, and Contributions.” European Journal of Information Systems 21 (2): 113–18.

Copas, John B. (1983). “Regression, Prediction and Shrinkage.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological) 45 (3): 311–35.

Cox, E S, and R K Z Heck. (1998). “The Family as a Foundation of Our Free Society: Strengths and Opportunities.” The Entrepreneurial Family, 8–15.

Creswell, John W, and Vicki L Piano Clark. (2007). “Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 31 (4): 388–388. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2007.00096.x.

Creswell, John W, and Vicki L Plano Clark. (2017). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Sage publications.

Dannhaeuser, Norbert. (1993). “The Survival of Family-Operated Firms under Developed Conditions: The Case of Hassfurt, Germany.” The Journal of Developing Areas 27 (3): 307–28.

David, Sadker, Sadker Myra, and R. Zittleman Karen. (2014). “Still Failing at Fairness: How Gender Bias Cheats Girls and Boys in School and What We Can Do About It.” Journal of Education and Educational Development 1 (1): 71–76.

David, Snow, Rochford Burke, Worden Steven, and Benford Robert. (1986). “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51 (4): 464–81.

Derksen, Shelley, and Harvey J Keselman. (1992). “Backward, Forward and Stepwise Automated Subset Selection Algorithms: Frequency of Obtaining Authentic and Noise Variables.” British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 45 (2): 265–82.

Dermont, Clau, Karin Ingold, Lorenz Kammermann, and Isabelle Stadelmann-ste. (2017). “Bringing the Policy Making Perspective in : A Political Science Approach to Social Acceptance.” Energy Policy 108 (May): 359–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.05.062.

Ejieh, Michael U C. (2006). “Pre-Primary Education in Nigeria: Policy Implementation and Problems.” Elementary Education Online 5 (1): 58–64.

“Factors in Fl Uencing Citizens ’ Acceptance and Non-Acceptance of Wind Energy in Germany.” (2018). Journal of Cleaner Production 175: 133–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.221.

Fairani, Ahmad, and Mansor Mariani. (2016). “Externalizing Behaviour Problem among Children Age Four and Below in Peninsular Malaysia.” Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 5 (1).

Fasona, Mayowa. (2014). “Gender Dimensions of Urban Commercial Farming in Lagos , Nigeria The High Rate of Poverty among Urban Households and The,” no. January 2004.

Fernandez, Almudena. (2017). “Policies and Strategies to Reduce Vulnerability and Enhance Resilience.”

Fine, M., Torre, M.E., Boudin, K., Bowen, I., Clark, J., Hylton, D., Martinez, M., “Missy,” Rivera, M., Roberts, R.A., Smart, P. and Upegui, D. (2003). “Participatory action. 2003. “Participatory Action Research: From Within and Beyod Prison Bars.” In Qualitative Research in Psychology: Expanding Perspective in Methodology and Design, 173–98.

Fraenkel, Jack R, Norman E Wallen, and Helen H Hyun. (2011). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.

Gandini, Lella. (2011). “Play and the Hundred Languages of Children: An Interview with Lella Gandini.” Americal Journal of Play 4 (1): 1–18.

Garba, Hamza A. (2017). “The Impact of British Colonial Education on Northern Nigeria : The Construction of a pro- British Oriented Society.” International Journal of Advanced Education and Research 2 (6): 43–49.

Gikonyo, Wamuyu, Zumilah Zainalaludin, and Jariah Masud. (2006). “Empowering Young Women through Micro-Enterprise Scaling-Up: A Case of Malaysian Rural Women.” In Youth Employment Summit. Citeseer.

Gliner, Jeffrey A, George A Morgan, and Nancy L Leech. (2011). Research Methods in Applied Settings: An Integrated Approach to Design and Analysis. Routledge.

Hair, Joseph F., Rolph E. Anderson, Barry J. Babin, and Wiiliam C. Black. (2010). “Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective (Vol. 7).” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Hamdollah, Ravand, and Purya Baghaei. (2016). “Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling with R.” Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation 21 (1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1108/ebr-10-2013-0128.

Hashim, Yusuf Alhaji. (2010). “Determining Sufficiency of Sample Size in Management Survey Research Activities.” International Journal of Organisational Management & Entrepreneurship Development 6 (1): 119–30.

Hsiao, Ju-Ling, and Rai-Fu Chen. (2016). “Critical Factors Influencing Physicians ’ Intention to Use Computerized Clinical Practice Guidelines : An Integrative Model of Activity Theory and the Technology Acceptance Model.” BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 16 (3): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-016-0241-3.

Huguet, Alice, Anna-Ruth Allen, Cynthia E. Coburn, Caitlin C. Farrell, Debbie H. Kim, and William R. Penuel. (2017). “Locating Data Use in the Microprocesses of District-Level Deliberations.” Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy 3 (1): 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/20020317.2017.1314743.

Ibrahim, Abdullahi. (2014a). Imacts of Girls Education Empowerment Programme on the Economic Well-Being of Katsina Rural Society, Nigeria. MSc Thesis, University Putra Malysia.

Ibrahim, Aisha Ningi, Ahmad Tarmizi Talib, Laily Bint, Hj Paim, and Sarjit S Gill. (2015). “Cultural Dynamics of Child Labour in Yobe State Nigeria.” Journal Of Humanities And Social Science 20 (5): 71–79. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-20567179.

Ismail, Norisma Aiza, Jariah Masud, and Zumilah Zainalaludin. (2015). “Income Components and Poverty among Older Men and Women in Malaysia.” ASIAN JOURNAL FOR POVERTY STUDIES (AJPS) 1 (1).

Izugbara, Chimaraoke O, and Alex C Ezeh. (2010). “Women and High Fertility in Islamic Northern Nigeria.” Studies in Family Planning 41 (3): 193–204.

Jackie, Kirk. (2006). Education in Emergencies: The Gender Implication. Edited by Caroline Haddad. Second. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education.

Jorge, García Luis, J.James Heckman, and Anna L Ziff. (2017). “Gender Differences in the Benefits of An Influential Early Childhood Program.” 23412. MA 02138. https://doi.org/10.3386/w23412.

Khandoker, Ahsan H., Haitham M. Al-Angari, Kinda Khalaf, Sungmun Lee, Wael Almahmeed, Habiba S. Al Safar, and Herbert F. Jelinek. (2017). “Association of Diabetes Related Complications with Heart Rate Variability among a Diabetic Population in the UAE.” PLoS ONE 12 (1): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168584.

Komendantova, Nadejda, and Antonella Battaglini. (2016). “Energy Research & Social Science Beyond Decide-Announce-Defend ( DAD ) and Not-in-My-Backyard ( NIMBY ) Models ? Addressing the Social and Public Acceptance of Electric Transmission Lines in Germany.” Energy Research & Social Science Jo 22: 224–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2016.10.001.

Krejcie, Robert V, and Daryle W Morgan. (1970). “Determining Sample Size for Research Activities.” Educational and Psychological Measurement 30 (3): 607–10.

Kretchmar, Jennifer. (2009). “Gender Socialization: Sex, Gender and Sexuality.” In , 8. EBSCO Publishing Inc.

Lichstein, Jeremy W. (2007). “Multiple Regression on Distance Matrices: A Multivariate Spatial Analysis Tool.” Plant Ecology 188 (2): 117–31.

Lim, Weng Marc, and Ding Hooi Ting. (2012). “E-Shopping: An Analysis of the Technology Acceptance Model.” Modern Applied Science 6 (4): 49–62. https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v6n4p49.

Lindsey, Eric W., and Jacquelyn Mize. (2001). “Contextual Differences in Parent-Child Play: Implications for Children’s Gender Role Development.” Sex Roles 44 (3–4): 155–76. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010950919451.

Liu, Zi Yu. (2014). “Exploring User Acceptance and Intension of Taxi-Hailing App in Shanghai.” An Analysis of Technology Acceptance Model, no. September 2014: 1.

Mader, Katharina. (2013). “The Gendered Nature of Intra-Household Decision Making in and across Europe.”

Mclean, George F, and Joseph Kenny. (2014). The Idea of a Nigerian University : Vol. 16.

Meryem, Casu Birinci. (2018). “Teacher in Reggio Emilia Approach : Educational Needs and Views.” EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education 14 (1): 279–90. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/79800.

Miatta, Bombali. (2017). “Building a Pathway from Demonstration to Scale-up – Promoting Early Childhood Development in Sierra Leone.”

Mohammed, Kabir, David Chapola Nggada, and Yusuf Abdullahi. (2013). “The State of Nigerian Female Education in the Post Colonial Era; With Reference To Some Northern States.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention ISSN (Online 2 (11): 2319–6718. www.ijhssi.org.

Moss, Peter. (2006). “Structures, Understandings and Discourses: Possibilities for Re-Envisioning the Early Childhood Worker.” Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood 7 (1): 30–41. https://doi.org/10.2304/ciec.2006.7.1.30.

Munro, Alistair, Bereket Kebede, Marcela Tarazona-Gomez, and Arjan Verschoor. (2011). “The Lion’s Share: An Experimental Analysis of Polygamy in Northern Nigeria.” Available at SSRN 1821283.

Navarro Sada, Alejandra, and Antonio Maldonado. (2007). “Research Methods in Education. -by Louis Cohen, Lawrence Manion and Keith Morrison.” Taylor & Francis.

NECE, National Center. (2016). Healthy Gender Development and Young Children: A Guide for Early Childhood Programs and Professionals.

Nupponen, Hannele. (2005). “Leadership and Management in Child Care Services : Contextual Factors and Their Impact on Practice.”

Nura, Aliyu Kabuga, and Usman Musa Adamu. (2017). “Empirical Analysis of Rural Poverty in Katsina State , Nigeria.” Yobe Journal of Economics 2 (1).

Odiagbe, Sunny Ighalo. (2015). “The National Minimum Standard on Early Child Care Centers (ECCC) in Nigeria and the Status of Pre-Primary Education in Uhunmwode Local Government Area of Edo State.” American Journal of Educational Research 3 (4): 399–405. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-3-4-3.

Olotuah, Abiodun Olukayode, and Damilola Esther Olotuah. (2016). “Space and Cultural Development in Hausa Traditional Housing.” International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology 5 (9): 654–59. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.155089 ABSTRACT.

Pence, Alan, and Emily Ashton. (2015). “Early Childhood Research in Africa: The Need for a Chorus of Voices.” The SAGE Handbook of Early Childhood Research, 380–97. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473920859.n23.

Pierce, Steven. (2007). “Identity, Performance, and Secrecy: Gendered Life and the" Modern" in Northern Nigeria.” Feminist Studies 33 (3): 539–65.

Rinaldi, Carlina, The Hundred Languages, Children Reggio, The Image, Child The, Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, The Role, Environment Through, and Reggio Emilia. n.d. “Basic Principles of the Reggio Emilia Approach.”

Roberta, Nelson. (2000). “Application of Reggio Emila Approach to Environments in USA.” Univesity of Nevraska.

Roe, Miranda, and Anne Morris. (2004). “The Capabilities of Women : Towards an Alternative Model of ‘ Responsibility ’ in Supporting Families and Children,” no. October.

Salami, Ishola Akindele, Early Childhood, and Education Unit. (2016). “Nigerian Early Childhood Education Policies and Practices for Sustainability.” European Journal Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences 4 (5): 71–85.

Santín, Mercè Fernández, and Maria Feliu Torruella. (2017). “Reggio Emilia : An Essential Tool to Develop Critical Thinking in Early Childhood” 6 (1): 50–56. https://doi.org/10.7821/naer.2017.1.207.

Sarki, Zakariyya Muhammad. (2015). “The Portrait of Family Size in the Hausa Home Videos: Culture or Economy?” International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences 5 (7): 274–82.

Shirin, Rai, and Jayne Kihara. (2013). “Equal Participation of Women and Men in Decision-Making Processes, with Particular Emphasis on Political Participation and Leadership.” United Nation Division for the Advancement of Women. Vol. 32. https://doi.org/10.25148/etd.FI10022504.

Sumita Parmar, Ragini SahaiDeepa Puneetha. (1996). “Gender Socialization Module: Gender from a Developmental Perspective.”

Surendran, A, and C Sekar. (2010). “An Economic Analysis of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Conserving the Biodiversity.” International Journal of Social Economics.

Suzana, Shahar, Nur ’Asyura Adznam Siti, Suriah AbdulRahman, Mod. Yusoff NoorAini, Zaitun Yassin, Fatimah Arshad, Noor Sakian Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohmad Salleh, and Asnarulkhadi Abu-Samah. (2012). “Development and Analysis of Acceptance of a Nutrition Education Package among a Rural Elderly Population: An Action Research Study.” BMC Geriatrics 12 (24): 1–9.

Udenigwe, Ogochukwu. (2013). “Managing the Impacts of Full Day Kindergarten on Rural Childcare Centres in Ontario.” Thesis.

UNECEF, Nigeria. (2015). “Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (Nerdc).”

UNESCO, IIEP. (2019). Mainstreaming Early Childhood Education into Education Sector Planning: The Rationale for Investing in Pre-Primary. UNESCO.

UNESCO, Intternational Bureau. (2007). “Country Profile on the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007 Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education Nigeria.” UNESCO.

UNICEF, Nigeria. (2018). “UNICEF 2017 Annual Report on Nigeria.” https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Nigeria_2017_COAR.pdf.

Wallang, Muslimmin. (2018). Determinants That Influence Citizen ’ s Usage of Different E-Government Services : A Malaysian Case Study. PhD Thesis, Unuversity of Queensland.

Wersebe, Hanna, Roselind Lieb, Andrea H Meyer, Jürgen Hoyer, Hans-ulrich Wittchen, and Andrew T Gloster. (2017). “Changes of Valued Behaviors and Functioning during an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Intervention.” Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science 6 (1): 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2016.11.005.

Wycliff, Samuel. (2014). A Study of the Establishment and Growth of Private Schools in Katsina, 1980-2010. Master Thesis Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria,

Yakubu, Sani Gombe. (2017). Moderating Effect of Gender on the Relationships Between Extension Worker Availability, Individual Factors and Empowerment Among Members of Self-Help Groups in North-Eastern Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University Putra Malaysia.

Yamane, T. (1967). “Research Methods: Determination of Sample Size.”

Zainalaludin, Zumilah, Askiah Jamaluddin, and Abd Shukor. (2017). “Gender and Vulnerable Types among Vulnerable Member in Malaysia Fisheries and Aquaculture Community.” International Journal for Studies on Children, Women, Elderly And Disabled 2: 32–37.

Zakiah, Adun, Half K. Mohamad, Zanalaludin Zumilah, and Sharif M. D. Mohamed. (2015). Best Aquacultural Practices for Gender Analysis among Micro & Small Scale Aquaculture Operators. World Aquaculture Conference, Jeju, South Korea.

Zumilah, Zainalaludin. (2010). Indicators of Micro Enterprise Development for Small Family Business in Rural Peninsular Malaysia. PhD Thesis, University Putra, Malaysia.
Published
2021-04-08
How to Cite
Abdullahi, I., Zainalaudin, Z., Paim, L. and Mansoon, M. (2021) “A Daughter Not a Son as Predictor of Reggio Emilia Early Childhood Development Acceptance: Paradigm Shift in Households of Rural Areas in Northern Nigeria”, Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(4), pp. 212 - 226. doi: https://doi.org/10.47405/mjssh.v6i4.758.
Section
Articles